Bilingualism, Multiculturalism & Second Language Learning // Review

By Reynolds, Allan G. | Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, September 1993 | Go to article overview

Bilingualism, Multiculturalism & Second Language Learning // Review


Reynolds, Allan G., Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology


Wallace Lambert has been a major figure in Canadian psychology since the mid - 1950s. In a publishing career that has spanned almost 40 years, his work has influenced almost every aspect of the psychology of language, in particular the psychology of bilingualism and second language acquisition. While his major disciplinary perspective has derived from social psychology, he has also carried out neuropsychological and experimental research on language processing among bilinguals. Outside of academe, he is perhaps best known for his in - depth longitudinal evaluation (with G.R. Tucker) of the St. Lambert French immersion program. It is no exaggeration to say that this evaluation radically changed the face of Canadian education, as evidenced by the more than 300,000 Canadian students currently enrolled in some form of immersion program.

This volume offers a fascinating and highly readable retrospect and update on the research and theoretical work of Lambert and his doctoral students, most of whom have also become leaders in their respective fields of psychological inquiry. As one reads through the ten chapters written by former doctoral students and colleagues of Lambert, followed by his concluding chapter, the scope and immense impact of Lambert's work become clear. The book represents a comprehensive treatment, from several disciplinary perspectives, of the three areas outlined in the title. It is also notable that despite the common influence of Lambert's work on all contributors, there is minimal overlap between the chapters. The volume is opened by Donald Taylor's chapter on "The social psychology of racial and cultural diversity: Issues of assimilation and multiculturalism." Taylor's major thesis is that two central factors can account for the maintenance of heritage culture and language among minority groups: first, in the economic and political sphere, heritage culture maintenance is a collective reaction to perceived social injustice; more fundamental, however, according to Taylor, is the role of cultural maintenance in providing a framework for self - identity. In his reaction to this chapter, Lambert notes that by linking heritage culture maintenance with the psychology of self - identity, Taylor has skilfully wrestled the issue of assimilation versus multiculturalism out of the hands of sociologists, economists, and political scientists. He also notes that recentwork that he and Taylor have carried out among a variety of ethnocultural groups in North America suggests that minority parents and their children can successfully juggle a heritage culture along with the culture(s) of their adopted land.

In the second chapter, Howard Giles and Nikolas Coupland review language attitude research based on the matched guise technique introduced by Lambert and his colleagues in 1960. They focus specifically on recent gerontological research that has made use of this technique. Robert Gardner continues the focus on attitudes and motivation in the third chapter which focusses specifically on second language learning. Once again, the "insider's" view of the evolution of research and theory in this area makes for interesting reading. Gardner points to the continued theoretical relevance of constructs and distinctions discussed by Lambert from the early 1960s: for example, the integrative/instrumental distinction in motivational orientations, the roles of intergroup attitudes, anomie and self - identification in second language development, notions of additive and subtractive bilingualism etc. In his comments on this chapter, Lambert highlights the fact that Gardner and his colleagues have fully documented the independence of the socialmotivational cluster from the aptitude - intelligence cluster of variables that affect second language learning. The excitement of Gardner and Lambert's early research on these phenomena is clearly conveyed in Lambert's account; for example, the fact that once they got rolling they "tested everything that moved" (p. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Bilingualism, Multiculturalism & Second Language Learning // Review
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.