[Biological Weapons: Limiting the Threat]

By Gizewski, Peter; Lederberg, Joshua | International Journal, Fall 1999 | Go to article overview

[Biological Weapons: Limiting the Threat]


Gizewski, Peter, Lederberg, Joshua, International Journal


The past decade has witnessed considerable progress in curbing threats posed by weapons of mass destruction. Yet the challenges which such arms present continue to keep pace with advances in their control and elimination. There is no better example of the dilemmas which disarmament efforts confront than the threat posed by biological and toxin weapons. Exceedingly difficult to detect and potentially devastating when used, biological armaments may well present the most plausible mass destruction threat for the future -- eclipsing nuclear arms in the ease with which they can be acquired and delivered and chemical arms in potential destructiveness. What is more, threats are real, and disarmament solutions are daunting.

This volume provides ample testament to the dangers and dilemmas which biological weapons (BWs) pose. A group of international experts cover a range of topics: the history of biological weapons, their nature and effects, efforts at disarmament -- both past and present -- and future threats and responses. The result is a balanced and highly sophisticated treatment of a complex and exceedingly worrisome disarmament issue.

Authors note that while disease has rarely been used as a weapon of war, isolated cases have occurred, and evidence of BW possession is considerable. Yet disarmament measures offer only imperfect protection against BW attack. The 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention lacks provisions for adequate verification of compliance. Attempts to fill such gaps effectively are difficult to devise and negotiate. And even dedicated efforts at on-site inspection and disarmament can be frustrating and flawed; a fact amply demonstrated by UNSCOM's experience in Iraq. Beyond this, national governments are generally ill-prepared to deal with the medical and psychological aftermath of BW attack.

Today, the likelihood of such attack remains remote but not inconceivable. Recent years have witnessed an increase both in the prospects for BW proliferation and in the sources from which such attacks could originate -- with terrorist groups and even unstable individuals now vying with states as potential users. Groups whose driving ideology allows violent action to be rationalized as serving the 'will of god' or which 'dehumanizes victims' (for example, religious extremists, millennarian cults, global revolutionary groups, and white supremacists) may be especially prone to BW use. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

[Biological Weapons: Limiting the Threat]
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.