How De We Teach? Results of a National Survey of Instruction in Secondary Art Education

By Burton, David | Studies in Art Education, Winter 2001 | Go to article overview

How De We Teach? Results of a National Survey of Instruction in Secondary Art Education


Burton, David, Studies in Art Education


This article summarizes selected questions from a 1999 national survey of instructional strategies used by secondary art teachers in the U.S. Results suggest art teachers most frequently use studio-- oriented teaching strategies, and find them most effective in motivation, demonstration, and questioning strategies. Particular note is made of assessment and evaluation, use of electronic technology, and art exhibition.

Introduction

Nothing is more fundamental to art education than the quality of instruction. While innumerable research studies focus on instructional practices, most pertain to small-scale studies done with self-contained groups at specific sites. Few are replicated. Generalizing to different, wider or larger frames of reference remains problematic. These anecdotal studies may provide valuable insights into teaching practices for practitioners and other researchers, but they do not give the kind of broad-based, discipline-- wide information decision-makers, policy-makers, and advocates wishing to influence them need or want.

Only a few demographic studies have been done that investigate instructional practices in art education across the entire nation. The NAEP Arts Report Card (Persky et al., 1998) was the first examination of art education students, teachers and some instructional practices done by the federal government in 17 years. According to a presentation at the Advanced Training Workshop for the Use of NAEP 1997 Arts Database (Sedlacek, 1999), the NAEP 1997 Arts sample population of 2,999 was carefully chosen to be highly representative of eighth-grade students. However, many of these students were not taking art at the time they were tested, may have only had a minimum of art instruction in middle school, or may not have been taught by art specialists in elementary school. In other words, the sample population is highly representative of eighth-grade students, but not eighth-grade art students. Moreover, the published analysis was generally limited to simple percentages. Deeper analyses were not undertaken. The findings, on the whole, were disappointing and unrevealing.

The NAEP 1997 data contain a wealth of salient information. It is possible to examine the data using more selective statistical procedures to reveal how well specific sub-groups (including art students) actually did and what instructional practices are in fact more successful. Diket, Burton and Sabol (2000) are currently conducting a secondary analysis of the NAEP 1997 data.

Chapman (1982) conducted a national survey of 187 art teachers, their conditions, curricula and teaching practices, in 1979. Mims and Lankford (1995) surveyed 332 members of the NASA elementary division on several factors, including patterns of practice related to time and money, and their impact on curriculum content and instructional decision making. Leshnoff (1997) reported on a national survey she conducted of teaching practices of art teachers who had student entries accepted in more than one Crayola Dream-Maker art exhibition. Burton (1998a) did a survey of the assessment and evaluation practices of U.S. K-12 teachers of art. Burton (19986) also surveyed U.S. K-12 teachers of art as to their use of electronic technology in their instruction. Williams (1996) replicated a national survey done by Eisner and Dobbs (1986) which examined art museum education practices.

This survey seeks to provide demographic baseline data showing the kind, quality and quantity of art instruction in secondary public and private schools across the United States. It focuses on secondary art instruction for two reasons: many elementary schools do not have art specialists or art programs, and enough significant differences exist between elementary and secondary art instruction to warrant separate surveys.

The quality of a survey of this kind depends to a large degree on the randomness of the population surveyed. Educational Directories, Inc. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

How De We Teach? Results of a National Survey of Instruction in Secondary Art Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.