Intelligence, Race, and Genetics: Conversations with Arthur R. Jensen

By McNish, Ian | Mankind Quarterly, Fall 2004 | Go to article overview

Intelligence, Race, and Genetics: Conversations with Arthur R. Jensen


McNish, Ian, Mankind Quarterly


Intelligence, Race, and Genetics: Conversations with Arthur R. Jensen

Frank Miele

Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado and Oxford, U.K., 2002

In 1969 the respected Harvard Educational Review, published a sensational 123 page article which made history and changed the course of research and debate in the area of intelligence, the heritability of intelligence, and its essential relevance riot only to academic achievement but also to the likelihood of success in life. This renowned paper was entitled "How can we Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement," arid it appeared at a time when America was struggling to raise the economic level of its substantial black minority by an extensive range of educational programs and policies, few of which seemed to be having much effect. Written by a 46 year old Berkeley psychologist, who was already well-known in his discipline, this momentous, almost book length article convincingly showed ihat intelligence was in the largest part genetically controlled, and that although improvements in environmental conditions could undoubtedly raise a child's academic performance, when environmental circumstances were equal, substantial differences in intelligence and intellectual ability often remained and that these were determined by heredity.

The author of this paper, Arthur R. Jensen, had already published extensively in related areas of psychology, but from that time on he became one of the best known names in American academia. Vehemently attacked by a few, but increasingly accepted and respected by a majority of his colleagues, Jensen continued to research and publish in this area, so that he is now the author of more than 400 books and articles, on intelligence, educational psychology, and individual and group differences. Frank Miele's recent book is an excellent introduction to the role of heredity in determining human behavior, since it surveys Jensen's current views on the subject as developed in a further 45 years of research and publishing since that momentous HER article appeared.

The first chapter clarifies for the layman the nature of IQ. Aside from the obvious fact that the Intelligence Quotient is a figure that reflects our ability to perform efficiently in IQ tests, it is well established that persons with a high IQ tend to be more successful throughout their careers. Known as g (for general mental ability) intelligence is a property of the brain that is linked to the individual's ability to perform all kinds of cognitive tasks. An individual's ability to perform specific tasks that are not purely cognitive is affected by a range of special abilities, but intelligence is of paramount importance in any task that requires reasoning ability.

Jensen's rise to fame was rooted in his ability, through an extensive survey of the literature, to advance the study of the relationship between IQ and heredity beyond the level achieved by earlier exponents of the genetic basis of intelligence. Jensen's views on this important topic are synopsized by Micle and presented in the chapter entitled, 'Nature, Nurture, or Both?' The many studies of twins that have been conducted show clearly that the IQ of identical twins (who by definition share 100% of their genes), reared in the same environment (life history cannot be exactly the same for any two individuals no matter how similar the environment), correlates to the level of .86. By comparison, the IQ of twins reared in separate families (in some instances studied even in different countries) still correlates at the level of .78. And by contrast, the IQ of siblings, who share only 50% of their genes, correlates at .47 if raised in the same home, and only .24 when reared apart. Other case studies show that that the intelligence of parents tends to correlate to the level of .42 with that of their natural children raised at home but at the level of only .19 with the intelligence of children they have adopted and raised in their home.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Intelligence, Race, and Genetics: Conversations with Arthur R. Jensen
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.