Using Data from Critical Care Nurses to Validate Swanson's Phenomenological Derived Middle Range Caring Theory

By Hanson, M. Dave | Journal of Theory Construction and Testing, Spring 2004 | Go to article overview

Using Data from Critical Care Nurses to Validate Swanson's Phenomenological Derived Middle Range Caring Theory


Hanson, M. Dave, Journal of Theory Construction and Testing


Abstract: While nurses strive to establish an evidence-based profession, they need to advocate for the caring aspect of nursing. For centuries, caring has been synonymous with nursing, but the published research fails to consider personal experiences that impact the nurse's caring response. This study of critical care nurses' perceptions and experiences validates the centrality of caring. This study reinforces the belief that the caring response be recognized as an important clinical variable that influences a diverse range of outcomes, such as patient satisfaction and therapeutic benefit.

Key Words: Caring, Compassionate Behaviors, Critical Care Nurses

As the healthcare landscape becomes more complex and chaotic, the value of nursing must be demonstrated. Nurses can demonstrate their value through acts of caring. For centuries, caring has been synonymous with the profession of nursing. When Johnson & Johnson (2002) launched a campaign to attract more people into the nursing profession, the campaign's central message was that nurses have opportunities to touch lives, to offer comfort, and to care. This recruitment campaign included a television advertisement that proclaimed "Nurses Dareto Care." Johnson & Johnson's (2002) successful advertising blitz supported the belief that caring is the unique and unifying focus of the nursing profession (Leininger, 1988).

PROBLEM STATEMENT

The professional nurse is expected to demonstrate critical thinking as a foundation for making decisions m nursing practice. The same nurse must also exhibit a strong sense of caring and compassion. A study by Mcllveen and Morse (1995), however, suggested that caring and comforting are secondary priorities in modern day nursing because of increased patient acuity and complex technology in hospital settings. These factors dramatically limit the time nurses have to demonstrate caring and compassionate behaviors for their patients.

For the nursing profession, the challenge has become one of survival. Because caring is identified as a core element of nursing practice, nurses must understand factors affecting their caring response. For more than a decade, nurse caring has been studied using exploratory, descriptive, phenomenological, philosophical, and model development approaches (Cronin & Harrison, 1988; Gaut, 1983; Leininger, 1981, 1983, 1984; Riemen, 1986; Valentine, 1989; Watson, 1979). Insights gained from previous research have been valuable to reaffirm that caring and comforting are an integral part of nursing care. But several unanswered questions remain.

Published research fails to consider the personal experiences that impact caring responses of nurses. This study addresses that problem specifically. As nursing continues to establish itself as an evidence-based profession, the need is equally great to advocate for the caring aspect of nursing. The caring response deserves recognition as an important clinical variable, influencing diverse care outcomes, such as patient satisfaction and therapeutic gain (Daniel, 1984).

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

Patistea (1999) suggests that the meaning and lived experience of caring is an area deserving further investigation. The objective of this research was to identify categories or patterns related to caring based on personal experiences of critical care nurses. Categories were identified from a questionnaire using content analysis methodology. Findings were then compared to Swanson's (1991) phenomenologically-derived, middle-range theory of caring. Swanson's theory was originally developed in the perinatal setting and identified five recurrent themes that were common while caring for patients. These themes arc a) maintaining belief, b) knowing, c) being with, d) doing for, and e) enabling.

The purpose of the present study was to identify categories or patterns related to caring among critical care nurses and determine if these categories and patterns validated Swanson's (1991) theory of caring. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Using Data from Critical Care Nurses to Validate Swanson's Phenomenological Derived Middle Range Caring Theory
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.