Family Functioning Measures: Convergent and Discriminant Validity

By Nelson, Deborah B. | Journal of Theory Construction and Testing, Summer 2003 | Go to article overview

Family Functioning Measures: Convergent and Discriminant Validity


Nelson, Deborah B., Journal of Theory Construction and Testing


Abstract: The purpose of this study was to conduct psychometric analysis of three self-report family functioning measures. Twenty-five families were recruited for study participation. The families consisted of a very low birthweight infant, the infant's mother, and an adult partner with whom the mother resided. Campbell and Fiske's (1959) multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) of establishing convergent and discriminant validity was employed. Traits consisted of mutuality and communication, and methods were three self-report family functioning measures: Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II), Family Functioning Style Scale (FFSS), and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI). Factor analysis was employed to confirm the findings generated from the MTMM method . The mothers and adult partners were examined independently. Convergent and discriminant validity was not established.

Key words: Family Systems, Multitrait-multimethod matrix, Very low birthweight infants

Despite four decades of progress in providing prenatal care to pregnant women, there has been no improvement in the preterm infant birth rate within the U.S. (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist, 1995). Technologic and pharmacological advancements have produced a decline in mortality for very low birthweight (VLBW) infants or infants under 1 500 grams (Goldenberg, 1994; Rouse et al., 1994; Ventura, Martin, Curtin & Mathews, 1999). The rate of handicaps, however, has remained steady (Goldenberg & Rouse, 1998; Hacketal., 1991; McCormick, 1989).

Very low birthweight infants remain at risk for developmental disabilities (Thompson et al., 1994). Because economic strain, special education, and long-term care are frequently produced, preterm birth remains a significant health care concern (Morrison, 1990). Healthy developmental outcomes are attainable in VLBW infants; therefore, the recognition of influences on outcomes is critical to families delivering infants prematurely. If research agendas are to be established, interventions developed, and theoretic frameworks reassessed, revised, and extended, an early recognition of such influences is imperative (Taylor, Klein, Schatschneider & Hack, 1998).

Although biologic risk factors such as birthweight have been widely accepted as indicators of developmental outcomes, considering birthweight alone is inadequate. Exclusive attention to infants' birthweight precipitated a paradigmatic shift in research agendas. A growing body of evidence, however, suggests that social influences such as the home environment, social support, and life stress serve as the best indicators of a child's long term developmental outcome (Leonard et al., 1990). As biological risks wane, the caregiving environment of family system has an increasing influence on developmental outcomes (Thompson, et al., 1998). Socioeconomic status, education, and the environment in which the child is raised appear to be the most important factors accounting for later development (Korner et al., 1993). Social influences have become increasingly important (Taylor et al., 1998).

The family system has been identified as a major environmental influence on the growth and development of the VLBW infant (Beckwith & Parmelee, 1986; Belsky, Lerner & Spanier, 1984; Minde, Perrotta & Hellman, 1988). In a system of interactions, the actions of one person (e.g., the father) can affect the responses of another person (e.g., the mother). These actions and responses can be influenced further by the presence or absence of a VLBW infant. From an ecological systems perspective, the VLBW infant is viewed as an indirect influence to which the individual and family system endeavor to adapt (Thompson et al, 1994). The infant's interactions can also affect the interactions of other people within the system. The family, therefore, is an interactional system with the potential for creating and/or modifying interactions and optimizing individual responses.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Family Functioning Measures: Convergent and Discriminant Validity
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.