The Negro Leagues, 1869-1960/take Me out to the Cubs Game: 35 Former Ballplayers Speak of Losing at Wrigley

By O'Connor, Kevin | Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Autumn 2004 | Go to article overview

The Negro Leagues, 1869-1960/take Me out to the Cubs Game: 35 Former Ballplayers Speak of Losing at Wrigley


O'Connor, Kevin, Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society


The Negro Leagues, 1869-1960. By Leslie A. Heaphy (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2003. Pp. viii, 375. $45.00).

Take Me Out to the Cubs Game: 35 Former Ballplayers Speak of Losing at Wrigley. By John C. Skipper (Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2000. Pp. viii, 248. $29.95).

Leslie Heaphy's The Negro Leagues, 1869-1960 is an excellent addition to the growing literature on the baseball played by African Americans before (and for some years after) Jackie Robinson first put on a Dodgers uniform. An historian at Kent State University (Stark campus), Heaphy skillfully places the developments in black baseball in proper historical context, noting, for example, how post-Civil War feelings of racial mistrust and fears that blacks would overwhelm the north created an informal (but frequently breached) color line that was made permanent in 1887, when an unwritten "Gentlemen's Agreement" among white club owners began a more systematic exclusion of blacks from "organized" ball.

Kept out of white major and minor league baseball, African Americans organized their own teams, and beginning in 1920, their own leagues. Heaphy's focus is broader than the baseball that was played on the field: she is equally interested in the African-American community and its relations to baseball. Black leaders such as Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois, Heaphy writes, encouraged black pride; the Negro Leagues would be a source of that pride. "By playing the National Pastime," writes Heaphy, baseball men such as Rube Foster, a ballplayer and businessman who organized the Negro National League (NNL), "believed opportunities would then open up for blacks in other areas."

The death in 1944 of baseball's first commissioner, Judge Kennesaw Mountain Landis, a strict enforcer of baseball's color line, opened the door to African Americans. But it was not simple altruism that gave the courageous Jackie Robinson his opportunity; the main force was baseball's pursuit of profits. Although the great baseball innovator Bill Veeck had earlier concocted a scheme to build a black team that would serve as a talent feeder to his own team (an idea nixed by Landis), it was Branch Rickey who was the first to draw from this hitherto untapped talent pool for his Brooklyn Dodgers. With the most gifted young African-American ballplayers being signed by major league clubs, what, then, would happen to the Negro Leagues? This is one of the strongest parts of Heaphy's book, as she discusses the mixed feelings that owners of Negro League teams had about these new opportunities. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Negro Leagues, 1869-1960/take Me out to the Cubs Game: 35 Former Ballplayers Speak of Losing at Wrigley
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.