Development and Assessment of a Sampling Design for Mussel Assemblages in Large Streams

By Christian, Alan D.; Harris, John L. | The American Midland Naturalist, April 2005 | Go to article overview

Development and Assessment of a Sampling Design for Mussel Assemblages in Large Streams


Christian, Alan D., Harris, John L., The American Midland Naturalist


ABSTRACT.-

Freshwater mussel beds of the lower 68 km of the Cache River, Arkansas, were delineated, sampled using dive techniques and a stratified random sampling methodology and analyzed for density and species richness. A total of 38 mussel beds were delineated, 14 major beds (Mbeds) and 24 minor beds (mbeds), and defined by areal extent and mussel density. Analysis of our sampling precision indicated 80% or better confidence levels for a majority of our sites and suggested that a sample size of 15 1-m^sup 2^ quadrats is sufficient to obtain 80% or better confidence. Our large river diver-assisted sampling methodology has been shown to be a useful and appropriate methodology for obtaining large geographic scale baseline distribution (bed and species), species richness, density and population and community numerical standing crop estimates information where tradeoffs are required in order to complete a project within time and budget constraints.

INTRODUCTION

Over 300 species of freshwater pearly mussels reside in the continental United States (Turgeon et al., 1998). However, within the last 50 y, this rich fauna has been decimated by impoundments, sedimentation, channelization, dredging, water pollution and invasive species (National Native Mussel Conservation Committee, 1998). Approximately 67% of the freshwater mussel species in the United States are vulnerable to extinction or are already extinct, and more than 1 in 10 species may have become extinct in this century (Williams et al., 1993; Bogan, 1997; Master et al., 1998).

Freshwater mussels are renewable resources that provide both ecological and economic benefits. They are ecologically important as a food source for aquatic and terrestrial animals, improve water quality by filtering contaminants, sediments and nutrients from aquatic systems and serve as an early warning system for water quality problems (National Native Mussel Conservation Committee, 1998; Vaughn and Hakenkamp, 2001). Currently, endangered species are regarded as indicator organisms in an ecosystem and efforts are being made to preserve not only the species and its habitat, but as much of the entire ecosystem as possible in order to prevent further degradation (Walters, 1992, 1993; Anderson, 1993; Doppelt, 1993; Rich ter, 1993). Economic benefits have been derived historically from the harvest of pearls and the production of buttons from shells. Recent economic benefits are found in the sale of mussels to the Far East where they are formed into beads for the thriving cultured pearl industry. However, the demand for beads has declined since 1995 due to the loss of the Akoya pearl oysters in Japan and new techniques for cultured pearl production in China, reducing the $50 million dollar industry of the mid 1990s to a much lesser valued industry (Neves, 1999).

In order to conserve native freshwater mussels in the U.S., the National Native Mussel Conservation Committee (1998) identified 10 specific problems. Among these problems was the lack of knowledge regarding current distribution and health of mussel populations (Problem 4). Strategies 4.1-4.3 regarding alleviation of this problem are germane to this study. These strategies include: (4.1) determining location, density, species composition and status of existing mussel communities, (4.2) gathering historic mussel distribution data and making it readily available and (4.3) gathering information on the occurrence and abundance of mussel stocks that have value for the commercial mussel industry. Surveys that address this problem have proliferated in recent years (Williams and Schuster, 1989; Ahlstedt and McDonough, 1993; Miller et al., 1993; Siemsen, 1993; Ahlstedt and Tuberville, 1997).

Historically, status surveys for freshwater mussels usually consisted of wading in a stream or walking along the stream bank picking up live mussels or relic shells (e.g., Gordon, 1982; Hoggarth, 1992; Walters, 1994), which would hamper collecting from deeper and/or more turbid waters. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Development and Assessment of a Sampling Design for Mussel Assemblages in Large Streams
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.