Audio-Visual Simultaneity Judgments

By Zampini, Massimiliano; Guest, Steve et al. | Perception and Psychophysics, April 2005 | Go to article overview

Audio-Visual Simultaneity Judgments


Zampini, Massimiliano, Guest, Steve, Shore, David I., Spence, Charles, Perception and Psychophysics


The relative spatiotemporal correspondence between sensory events affects multisensory integration across a variety of species; integration is maximal when stimuli in different sensory modalities are presented from approximately the same position at about the same time. In the present study, we investigated the influence of spatial and temporal factors on audio-visual simultaneity perception in humans. Participants made unspeeded simultaneous versus successive discrimination responses to pairs of auditory and visual stimuli presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies from either the same or different spatial positions using either the method of constant stimuli (Experiments 1 and 2) or psychophysical staircases (Experiment 3). The participants in all three experiments were more likely to report the stimuli as being simultaneous when they originated from the same spatial position than when they came from different positions, demonstrating that the apparent perception of multisensory simultaneity is dependent on the relative spatial position from which stimuli are presented.

Historically, some researchers have argued that people do not experience a strong perception of simultaneity for stimuli presented to different sensory modalities (such as audition and vision; see, e.g., Fraisse, 1964; Guinzberg, 1928; Piéron, 1952). For example, Piéron (1952, p. 295) claimed that whereas a "rigorous impression" of simultaneity can occur for stimuli presented within a sensory modality, no clear sensation of simultaneity is perceived for stimuli presented to different sensory modalities. A similar point was made by Fraisse (1964, p. 109) when he stated that "it is very difficult to assess the simultaneity of two sensations which have nothing in common; this is true for stimulations involving the same sense, but even more so for heterogeneous stimulations."

On the other hand, contemporary research provides a number of demonstrations that appear to show that people can judge the apparent simultaneity of events across the senses (see Spence, Shore, & Klein, 2001, for a review). In fact, a growing body of behavioral and neurophysiological research now highlights the crucial role that temporal synchrony and spatial coincidence play in modulating the effects of multisensory integration (e.g., Lewald, Ehrenstein, & Guski, 2001; Slutsky & Recanzone, 2001 ; see Driver & Spence, 2000, and Stein & Meredith, 1993, for reviews). Research also suggests, however, that temporal and spatial factors may play somewhat distinct roles in modulating multisensory integration effects (for reviews, see Calvert, Brammer, & Iversen, 1998; Munhall & Vatikiotis-Bateson, 2004; Spence & Driver, 2004; Stein & Meredith, 1993). This is clearly true for the case of audiovisual speech perception, in which temporal desynchronization of the auditory and visual components has been shown to have a far more detrimental effect on speech perceptibility (e.g., McGrath & Summerfield, 1985; Pandev, Kunov, & Abel, 1986) than does spatial misaligment (e.g., Bertelson, Vroomen, & de Gelder, 1997; Jones & Munhall; 1997; Radeau & Bertelson, 1977).

Researchers have developed several experimental paradigms to assess the perception of multisensory simultaneity in humans, including the temporal order judgment (TOJ) task and the simultaneity judgment task. In a typical simultaneity judgment experiment, pairs of auditory and visual stimuli are presented at a range of different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), using the method of constant stimuli (e.g., Spence, Shore, & Klein, 2001), and participants are required to judge whether the stimuli were presented simultaneously or successively (e.g., Engel & Dougherty, 1971; Exner, 1875; Hirsh & Fraisse, 1964; Slutsky & Recanzone, 2001; Stone et al., 2001). Psychophysical analysis of the results of such studies is used to determine the SOA at which the participants would have been most likely to have made a "simultaneous" response, known as the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS).

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Audio-Visual Simultaneity Judgments
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.