Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior: Psychosocial Risk Models with Turkish Adolescents

By Terzi-Unsal, Sevim; Kapci, Emine Gul | Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, August 20, 2005 | Go to article overview

Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior: Psychosocial Risk Models with Turkish Adolescents


Terzi-Unsal, Sevim, Kapci, Emine Gul, Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal


This study aimed to test three different suicide models for adolescents residing in a Turkish City, Batman. A total of 605 adolescents from five different high schools participated in this study (M=411, F=190, sex of 4 participants not recorded). A Psychosocial Variables Form (developed for this study), the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (Offer, Ostrov, Howard, & Dolan, 1989, adapted by Sahin 1993), the Adolescence Life Events Questionnaire (Kapci & Terzi-Unsal, 2001), the Piers-Harris Self-Worth Scale for Children (Harris & Piers, 1969, adapted by Catakli & Oner, 1996), the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire (Linehan & Nielsen, 1981, adapted by Bayam, Dilbaz, Bitlis, Holat, & Tuzer, 1995), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (Beck, Weissman, Lester, & Trexler, 1974, adapted by Durak, 1994), the Suicide Ideation Questionnaire (Dilbaz, Holat, Bayam, Tuzer, & Bitlis, 1995), the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1992, adapted by Sabin & Durak, 1994) and the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (Zimmet, Dahlen, Zimmet, & Farley, 1998, adapted by Eker & Arkar, 1995) were utilized. The data were analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling. The findings suggest that adolescent life events, psychosocial variables, social support and self-image are secondary risk factors for adolescent suicides, predicting self-worth, psychological health and hopelessness. These variables, in turn, predicted suicide ideation identified as a primary risk factor - that predicted suicide behaviors. The results are discussed in the context of primary-secondary risk factors for adolescent suicides.

Keywords: adolescence, suicide, risk factors, self-esteem, life events.

Suicide, which can be defined as a behavior committed to end one's own life, has become one of the leading causes of adolescent deaths in many countries in recent decades. For example, studies conducted in the USA reveal that adolescent suicide has increased threefold since the 1960s and it threatens adolescents as the second most frequent cause of death after traffic accidents (Queralt, 1998). A similar increase can be seen in European countries and a higher increase is observed in the rate of suicide in Northern Europe (Wichstrom, 2000).

In Turkey, as deaths are not classified according to their causes, there is no information about the place of adolescent suicides in the list of general deaths in adolescents. In the statistics compiled by the State Statistics Institute of Turkey (SSI, 2002), suicides are categorized according to age groups along with the reasons for these deaths - such as parental disputes, failure in education and others. It is possible to monitor the annual increases in the suicide rate which were 1.92 in a 100,000, in 1988 and increased to 2.42 in 1990 and to 3.30 in 1997 with the highest rate of suicide observed in the 15-24 age groups (SSI). Batman is one of the provinces of Turkey located in the South Eastern Region1 and it attracts attention because of increases in the rates of suicides and attempted suicides. According to a study, the rate of attempted and completed suicides were found to be 20.18% and 6.51% respectively in 2000 (Oto, Altindag, Bagli, Ozen, & Erkan, 2001). This rate is three times higher than the average of Turkey. In another study covering the years between 1995-2000, this increase is also evident and it is stated that there is a dramatic increase in the number of completed and attempted suicides especially in the age group of 15-34 in Batman (Family Research Institute of Turkey, 2000).

Parallel to the high rates of attempted and completed adolescent suicides, increased efforts to identify the risk factors for adolescent suicides have been observed. While some of these studies aim to identify risk factors, other studies examine these risk factors within the framework of an adolescent suicide risk model (Stoelb & Chiriboga, 1998; McGee, Williams, & Nada-Raja, 2000). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior: Psychosocial Risk Models with Turkish Adolescents
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.