Social Skills Training for Children and Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Validity Considerations and Future Directions

By Gresham, Frank M.; Cook, Clayton R. et al. | Behavioral Disorders, November 2004 | Go to article overview

Social Skills Training for Children and Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Validity Considerations and Future Directions


Gresham, Frank M., Cook, Clayton R., Crews, S. Dean, Kern, Lee, Behavioral Disorders


ABSTRACT:

This article provides an analysis of the current knowledge base of social skills training (SST) with students with, or at risk for, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD). This knowledge base is evaluated with respect to issues regarding construct, internal, external, and social validity of the SST literature. Research syntheses investigating construct validity suggest that the three domains of social interaction, prosocial behavior, and social-cognitive skills adequately represent the social skills construct. Internal validity analyses based on the results of six meta-analyses suggested that SST is an effective intervention strategy for students with EBD, showing a 64% improvement rate relative to controls using the Binomial Effect Size Display. External validity analyses showed that SST is effective across a broad range of behavioral difficulties, such as aggression externalizing behaviors, internalizing behaviors, and antisocial behavior patterns. Some weaknesses were noted in the social validity of SST outcome measures, and recommendations are made for improvement in this area. Overall, SST is an effective and essential part of a comprehensive intervention program for students with EBD.

* Students classified as having Emotional and Behavior Disorders (EBD) experience significant difficulties in the development and maintenance of satisfactory interpersonal relationships, exhibition of prosocial behavior patterns, and social acceptance by peers and teachers (Gresham, 1998; Kauffman, 2001; Walker, Ramsay, & Gresham, 2004). These social skills deficits lead to both short-term and long-term difficulties in areas of educational, psychosocial, and vocational domains of functioning (Kupersmidt, Coie, & Dodge, 1990; Newcomb, Bukowski, & Pattee, 1993; Parker & Asher, 1987). Personal and social adjustment largely depends on an individual's ability to initiate, facilitate, and maintain meaningful interpersonal relationships. These positive interpersonal relationships, in turn, lead to peer acceptance as well as mutually rewarding and lasting friendships (Gresham, 2001; Newcomb & Bagwell, 1995; Walker et al., 2004). Moreover, a large part of being socially competent reflects the ability to terminate pernicious or destructive interactions and relationships with others (Elliott & Gresham, 1991; Gresham, 2002). It could be argued that the primary reason children and youth are referred for, and subsequently classified as, EBD is based on their social competence deficiencies (Forness & Knitzer, 1992; Gresham, 2002).

Two of the five criteria described in the present definition of emotional disturbance of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 1999) indicate social competence difficulties as part of the eligibility standards: (a) an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers; and (b) the expression of inappropriate behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. Additionally, social competence or interpersonal difficulties are part of the diagnostic criteria for many disorders of childhood and adolescence specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). These disorders include childhood depression, dysthymia, conduct disorders, oppositional defiant disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, selective mutism, and autism.

The purpose of the present paper is to provide an analysis of the current landscape and knowledge with respect to validity issues bearing upon social skills training (SST) with children and youth who have EBD. Specifically, we describe key measurement and design issues found in the published social skills intervention studies and various meta-analyses that have attempted to summarize and meaningfully integrate the knowledge base in this area. Consistent with the theme of this special issue, we will characterize and discuss social skills training across four types of validity evidence: construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and social validity. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Social Skills Training for Children and Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Validity Considerations and Future Directions
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.