Coda: The Next Generation
Margolin, Uri, Style
As already indicated in the introduction to these special issues, limitations of space have prevented us from including articles by the youngest generation of German narratologists, that is, people who have recently finished their doctoral dissertations or at most their Habilitationsschrift (tenure book). We have also indicated that some of these writings are of excellent quality. The least one could do then by way of conclusion is to provide a survey of several major contributions by members of this new generation, written in the last five years or so.
Some of the hallmarks of this work, like of that of the 199Os as a whole, are multidisciplinarity of theoretical frameworks, openness towards research in other languages, especially English, and concentration on contemporary, especially experimental literature. Narratology is thus conceived as consisting of at least three distinct paradigms: the classical structuralist or formal, the possible-worlds or semantic, and the functional-pragmatic, leading in its turn to issues of cognitive text processing, impact, and effect, and social contexts of reception. Another frequent feature of recent work, especially among Anglisten, is the desire to integrate formal studies with current, more theme- or context-oriented ones, such as feminism, postcolonialism, historical constructionism or cultural studies. Forms of expression are thus related to forms of content (themes, master plots), first because formal description by itself is felt to be incomplete until and unless functionalized, and second because of the firm conviction that narrative meaning-construction (Sinnkonstitution), whether textual or readerly, is crucially influenced by formal textual features and structures (focalization, multiperspectivism, etc). Analogously, major historical shifts in the selection or dominance of particular narrative procedures are correlated with, and considered indicative of, changes in worldview, cultural categories, and so on. While none of the foregoing assumptions is absolutely new as far as aesthetics or general literary theory are concerned, their consistent use as overriding methodological guidelines does mark an important new phase within narratological research. Once again, there is more available good work than space for its adequate coverage. I have therefore chosen only those studies which satisfy the following three criteria: clear theoretical emphasis, focus on a major issue of narratology, and innovative methods or results.
The first work to be discussed is Andrea Gutenberg's study (2000), whose title in English translation is "Possible Worlds: Plot and Meaning Construction in the English Feminist Novel." This study seeks to define the thematic concerns of fourteen novels by and about women published in Britain between 1960 and 1994, employing the conceptual machinery of structuralist plot theory as well as of possible-worlds semantics. This machinery is reviewed in part 1, followed in part 2 by a typology of sixteen general plot patterns defined according to five aspects discussed in the first part. The third part describes in detail the individual plots of the novels in relation to the previously defined general plot patterns. Basic to this procedure are several assumptions. First, while each novel has only one plot in the sense of a specific sequence of events, actions, and character constellations, several general or abstract plot patterns (as well as narrative themes and concerns) can be embodied in it (413). second, abstract plot patterns are schemas, which exist only in individual embodiments and may admit of variants. Third, and most important, it is neither in abstract argumentative passages nor in details of the individual plot that a narrative's thematic concerns are to be found, but rather at the level of plot pattern. Fourth, plot patterns in their turn are defined according to both representational and formal factors. And finally, since plot patterns admit of variants, the preferred or dominant variant in each period is indicative of wider cultural preferences or trends.
The plot patterns with which Gutenberg's study is concerned are labeled in conventional thematic terms, such as social or spiritual quest, courtship, seduction, wedlock, intergenerational relations, group or friendship formation/ loss, etc., and are then defined according to five aspects. Three are mimetic or representational, and include character constellation (i.e., role relations), the goal or final stage of the action (i.e., the social or psychological state whose achievement is desired by the hero), and the motive governing the dynamics of the action. Of the two formal aspects, the first one concerns the underlying plot conflict, defined in terms of the modalities governing the individual characters' subjective domains (knowledge, obligation, intention, and wish), as described by Marie-Laure Ryan and Lubomir Dolezel (see Jan Alber's general bibliography in issue 38.2). The second formal aspect is that of the plot's architectonics or configuration, such as linear, progressive, and teleological or circular (returning to the point of departure, sometimes at a higher level); open-ended or effecting closure; stressing the beginning, the end, or a climactic middle section towards which everything preceding leads and from which all later events and actions follow. Gutenberg stresses that the five aspects are at least quasi-independent variables, and each particular combination of all five is a historical conjunction (129). Let me conclude then with one example of the five aspects combined. The plot pattern termed the seduction plot, so common in eighteenth-century novels, has as its character configuration a heterosexual couple in antagonistic role relations of seducer and ingénue. The goal or final stage of the action consists of loss of virginity or the banishment/death of the heroine, and the plot dynamic is defined by flight and pursuit. The plot architectonic is teleological, consisting of repetition with variations. The underlying conflict, finally, is that between the heroine's wishes and her obligation to preserve her innocence and the seducer's wish to deprive her of it.
The combination of plot models and the modal logic of possible worlds semantics is also at the heart of the next work, the as yet unpublished Habilitationsschrift (2001) of Hilary Dannenberg (Leipzig), written in English and titled Coincidence and Counter)'actuality: Plotting Time, Space and Mind in [English] Narrative Fiction, 1580-1998. This study is enriched by the addition of a cognitive component, dealing with the reader's construction of the textworld by means of "plotting," that is, employing categories such as causation, temporal relocation, and blending of domains, and spatial metaphors such as path, container, and portal to connect temporal phenomena. The other side of the reader's activity consists of emotive and imaginative processing, including simulation, immersion, anticipation, and suspense regarding whether and how something will happen.
The traditional coincidence plot is defined as follows: "The paths of characters with a previous connection [especially kinship] intersect in the space time of the narrative world in apparently random and remarkable circumstances, and through no [. . .] intent of their own" (143). The plot's three phases are previous relationship, coincidental encounter, and characters' recognition of each other's identity. A dual identity of one of the characters, which is the subject of a discovery (sub)plot, reinforces the coincidence plot, while its opposite is nonconvergence, where the intended intersection of objects in the narrative world fails or is thwarted. Recognition between coinciding characters may be simultaneous or successive, as for example when one of them possesses superior knowledge. Most narratives with a coincidence plot construct a system of motivation to explain the miraculous or uncanny nature of this coincidence. This may involve the assertion of causal-manipulative links (someone, divine or human, manipulating the characters from one state to another), or of a causal link having to do with lineage, with paths by which things in the world can spring from one another; but the narrative may also suggest an apparently random world. In metafiction, the causal-manipulative plotting agent or factor revealed by the text is the actual author, rather than any member of the fictional universe. In a wider sense, one can speak of coincidence in the narrative world whenever there is a sense of striking correspondence between independent objects or events in it, serially arranged or simultaneously perceived. And it may be a character who recognizes analogical coincidences within his world, or the reader who recognizes networks of analogical coincidences that link different temporal levels in a narrative, as in much of postmodern narrative (143-46).
Counterfactual plots are understood as a subset of alternate-worlds construction. One can thus start from the distinction fact versus nonfact in a world. Within a fictional world, there may be a domain of facts, which, by definition, can include only narratively past or present events. The future at each point in the narrative provides the participants with multiple possible continuations to the present moment, none of which is fact as yet. Such possibilities (virtualities) can be conceived of and expressed by characters or narrator, but no possibility can as yet have ontological precedence over the others. Sometimes there is an uncertainty in a narrative world about what actually happened at some point in the past, so that narrator or characters may formulate different alternative hypotheses as to what happened. In principle, since it is the past we are concerned with here, there is a fact of the matter to be known, and hence only one of these hypotheses is true. Which one it is may become clear at the end of the text, or the lack of knowledge may persist to the very end. Sometimes the facts are known, but not to everybody, and a character who is ignorant of what happened may sincerely offer his own alternative (but mistaken) version of the events. Moreover, a character may well know the facts of the matter yet offer an alternative version with the intention of deceiving. In metafiction there is no singular domain of facts, and hence no alternatives to it exist. We are faced with a multiplicity of irreconcilable alternative versions of the narrative world as a whole, with no ontological hierarchy or decision procedure.
Narrators and characters are engaged in specifically counterfactual games when, knowing the facts full well, theyformulate scenarios as to what would have happened in the narrative world had things gone otherwise as of a certain point (had not X but Y been the case at time point t). And flesh-and-blood authors may create fictional worlds which consist of counterfactual histories of the actual world, such as "what would have happened had Germany won World War II?" According to Dannenberg's definition, a counterfactual is a hypothetical alteration in a past sequence of events in a world, which mutates ("undoes") the following events of that world, be it a fictional domain or our own actual world. Counterfactual reasoning has an if-then structure, with the antecedent designating the point in the past where the narratively factual course of events is altered to create the counterfactual one, and the consequent consists of the results of this alteration. The structure of the inference itself is strongly causal. Counterfactuals can create better or worse versions of the factual world, and may involve the speaker or others. They may involve events and actions, but also properties of an individual, thereby creating a counterpart or an alternative version of this individual. And the individual involved may himself be fictional or historical.
Counterfactuality assumes different forms in different narrative genres. In the realistic novel, there is only one factual world, and counterfactuals are subordinate virtual worlds introduced as hypothetical speculation by narrators and characters. (And of course at each point any character may imaginatively construct multiple alternative futures for himself). In science fiction, one sometimes uses a counterfactual historical premise to construct the narrative world and the events that follow. A backwards time-travel plot may lead to the modification of some sections of actual world history and the creation of an additional past-present time path, giving the narrative universe as a whole the structure of a multiple-world ontological system. In historiographic metafiction, finally, historical counterfactuals predominate and the ontological hierarchy of historical actual world versus historical counterfactuals is tendentiously undermined (187-90).
The rich, varied, and often innovative theoretical part of Dannenberg's study is followed by an extensive examination of coincidence and counterfactuality and their vagaries in at least fifty novels from the Renaissance to Postmodernism. Several published articles in which early component versions of this study are presented are listed in the general bibliography (issue 38.2).
The two aspects, semantic (both cognitive and possible-world) and pragmatic (readerly operations and effect), of narrative perspective are explored in Carola Surkamp's beautifully written study whose title, translated into English, reads "The Perspectival Structure of Narrative Texts: Its Theory and History between Victorianism and Modernism" (2003). This study, a doctoral thesis written under the supervision of Ansgar Nunning, forms part of a larger research project on narrative perspective undertaken by Nunning and several of his colleagues and students (Nunning and Niinning, eds., Multiperspektivisches), and some insights from this supplementary work will be incorporated into my survey as needed. The book consists, as usual, of a theoretical part, followed by a historical, applied one. In the theoretical part, four key concepts are explicated: narrative perspective, multiperspectival narration, the perspectival structure of a narrative as a whole, and open versus closed perspectival structure.
Any narrative perspective is anchored in the communicative structure of narrative discourse and its two tiers: narration and the narrated. A narrative perspective may hence belong to a character, narrator, or fictive addressee, especially reader, insofar as they are conceived of as humanlike entities with a mind or interiority. More specifically, "the perspective of a character" is a semantic notion, designating the reality-model held by a given literary figure, that is, the totality of factors both inner (interpretive schemata, norms, values, psychological dispositions) and outer (situative, contextual) that enter into any of its actions and into that figure's individual subjective vision or projection of its world (41). In other words, "perspective" is used here to designate the cognitive, normative and evaluative mental structure of a storyworld participant. Analogously, "the narratorial perspective" designates the reality-model of the speaker on the level of narrative mediation, this model being defined through the speaker's information state, knowledge, dispositions and capabilities, values, motives, intentions, and situative factors (43). Finally, "the perspective of the fictional reader" (insofar as a narratee is explicitly defined in the text) designates the reality-model of the receiver on the level of narrative mediation, and consists of his information state, values, internalized norms and, in some cases, also of motivation, intention, gender and situational factors (45). Let us note that "perspective" (in the sense of a reality-model) of a storyworld participant can change radically in the course of the action, due to changes in the information available to this participant or changes in characters' way of processing and interpreting information.
If "perspective" is understood, as suggested here, as the cognitive, normative, and emotive mental structure of a storyworld participant, it is obvious that its particular makeup will have a decisive influence on the selection of storyworld elements to be focalized or narrated, as well as on the manner in which such elements are perceived, mediated, recalled, and interpreted. It is also evident that when individuals possessing different reality-models perceive, recall, or cognitively process the same data, the result will be a series of different mental representations or cognitive models of the shared data. Each of these individual mental representations can be regarded as a cognitive construct, but also as a particular epistemic version of a sector of the Textual Actual World, that is, of the base storyworld or the facts of the narrated domain. In this particular context, Surkamp suggests that we employ the term "possible world" to designate a vision or projection (Ansicht) of an event, state, or character in the Textual Actual World as constructed on the basis of the subjective individual perspective of a character, narrator, or fictive reader. A crucial question, which immediately arises, concerns the degree of correspondence between any of these possible worlds and what is considered to be the Textual Actual World, and the hierarchization of the various perspectives according to this relation.
Multiperspectival narration can be understood as a form of narrative transmission in which the same state of affairs is represented through two or more different perspectives, thereby providing two or more versions of this state of affairs, the perspectives themselves belonging to different narrators or focalizer/ reflector figures (Niinning, ed., Metzler 459). "The perspectival structure of the text as a whole" designates the totality of the relations obtaining in multiperspectival narrative texts between the perspectives of the characters, and between them and that of the narrator (501). In the text, the various individual perspectives do not exist in isolation, but rather complement, correct, relativize, modify, or contradict each other. As a result, the meaning-potential of the text resides not in any individual perspective or any sum of subjective reality-models, but in the interplay between these perspectives. In the reading process, one needs to identify and differentiate the various perspectives available in the text, and then coordinate and hierarchize them in order to get to the facts of the Textual Actual World. These operations, in their turn, depend on text elements that organize the plurality of textual perspectives. One thus needs to develop a roster of narratological criteria for the choice, relative weighting and validation of the individual narrative perspectives.
Some of the criteria proposed by Surkamp include the number and diversity of characters' perspectives; degree of explicitness of the narrator and fictive reader; degree of authority, reliability, and concreteness of a perspective; and the textual order of presentation and relative extent of the different perspectives. Other relevant factors are the confirmation of characters' perspectives and the authentication of their version of the Textual Actual World through plot, conclusion of the action, and constellation of characters. Still other factors include the degree to which a given character's perspective is unique or shared (= collective), and the presence of a higher-level framing perspective, like that of a fictional editor or publisher. The perspectival structure of any given multiperspectival narrative may be placed between the extreme poles of convergence of individual perspectives, or closed structure, and their divergence, or open structure. In the first case, the individual perspectives are homogenized or hierarchized in such a way that their different world-versions can be combined to yield a uniform overall pattern. In the other case, the multiperspectival spread ends up yielding a mere conjunction of discordant world-versions of equal weight, a plurality of interpretations of the fictional world. Looking at the criteria defined earlier, one can see, for example, that a large number and spread of perspectives would tend towards a divergent structure, while the opposite case would encourage convergence. Other factors leading to convergence include, among others, shared characters' perspectives and their clear hierarchization.
The second, historical, part of Surkamp's study demonstrates that the British novel between, say, 1870 and 1930 undergoes a process whereby the "singlepoint perspective system" or convergence of individual perspectives is replaced more and more by a mere juxtaposition of discordant perspectives. This everincreasing divergence is manifested in three major thematic areas: epistemological doubt or an ever-increasing subjectivization and fragmentation of life experience; the questioning of traditional female images and gender roles; and the deconstruction of imperialist structures of attitude and reference.
The last work to be discussed in detail here is Fotis Jannidis's Figur und Person (roughly, "Literary Figure/Character and the Human Person" ). This is a major foundational study, inquiring into the inferential steps involved in the reader's construction of a mental representation of a character from a narrative text, and the minimal textual conditions that would enable this inference or construction. Other basic issues treated include the notion of literary character itself and its basic constituents, and the direct and indirect sources of information regarding characterization of a literary figure and their modal status (factual possible, subjectively ascribed, hypothetical). The enquiry is logicophilosophical rather than empirical in nature, and beyond narratology its theoretical framework consists of communication theory, pragmatics, and components of hermeneutics and cognitive science. Basic philosophical assumptions are that textual meaning is inferred or constructed by the reader in the communication process, and that such inferences are context-dependent, guided by narrative conventions, especially our mental models of different fictional worlds and genres as well as of actuality, and are probabilistic in nature. All inferences of this kind are also abductive in C. S. Peirce's sense, hence incomplete and problematic. They operate on two levels: on the first, a narrative world is constructed from a text; on the second, elements of the narrative world (such as a character's looks) may serve as a sign for other elements (such as mental traits).
Literary character as a mental category is organized in our minds prototypically, its best exemplar being an entity with humanlike exteriority and internal mental states defined by current cultural concepts. Both exterior and interior components admit of transitory states as well as enduring properties, with the exterior being sensorily accessible to other characters and to observers/ narrators, while the interior can be accessible to narrators only. The mental model of any character is incrementally built by the reader in the course of reading, and is further based on folk psychology, especially its assumption that intentional action can be given ground by the mental states (belief, wish, emotion) of agents. Readers are thus inclined to construct causal motivation for actions, which goes as follows: grounds lead to intentions; intentions and enabling factors lead to action. Character, in sum, is a text-based mental model built in the mind of the reader in the course of textual comprehension, and its main differences from actual persons resides in the limited information about it and in its dependence on the nature of narrative communication.
As for textual conditions, any character must first and foremost be mentioned, named, or designated (Benennung) in the text, be it directly or indirectly. The first textual mention actually creates the figure, and naming fulfills several crucial functions. It differentiates the given character from all others, provides a reference point for the ascription of features, forms the linguistic and conceptual point of reference for further mention, and provides the character with minimal identity, in the sense of reader's knowledge of whom is being spoken of. Numerous, differing referring expressions may be assigned by the reader to the same character, even if coreference cannot be linguistically decided. Such assignment is based on narrative situative frameworks, that is, narrative space-time sectors and what has occurred in each so far-for example, assessing the features hitherto assigned to a given character, and those assigned on the current occasion. Deciding coreference may also involve literary, cultural, or world knowledge, as well as familiar scripts. Character may hence be invoked by linguistic means, but is itself a conceptual entity, which may be differently named in different text segments. Occasionally, the relation of coreference between naming expressions may remain undecided for part or all of the text, depending on its genre.
Characterization in the narrow sense is a special case of property-ascription to a character, which leads to the stable attachment of a property to this character's interior aspect. Direct characterization is a one-step activity. In indirect characterization, information A is ascribed to a character, but, at the end of a process of abductive inference, a different property B is attached to the reader's mental model of this character. More specifically, certain information (say, about a character's setting or action) is identified on the basis of a semantic trigger as a sign for information about an interior property of this character. The trigger itself may be a generic model, a kind of narrative world, or a convention as to what is relevant for the characterization of a figure in this particular story. And the specific content of the inference is also conditioned by the nature of the relevant narrative world. A crucial role in this context is played by our character schemata or character-based expectations of regularity. Finally, as we have earlier seen, action descriptions encourage us to ascribe to their agents mental states, such as wishes, beliefs, or emotions. Conversely, character can be used to provide action with causal, final or compositional motivation.
Jannidis's cognitive theory of character formation is based on an abstract philosophical model and on a model reader: an abstract entity which understands and fulfills all expectations of narrative communication in the given historical context, and which possesses all relevant linguistic, literary, and cultural knowledge. But what is the mechanism by which a mental representation of a character is formed in the mind of an actual reader? Here one needs to look to cognitive psychology for suggestions. This is precisely what RaIf Schneider did in his 2000 study Grundriss zur kognitiven Théorie der Figurenrezeption am Beispiel des viktorianischen Romans (Outline of a Cognitive Theory of Character Reception, Illustrated by the Victorian Novel), sketching out a cognitive theory of character reception. Fortunately, the English reader can consult Schneider's "Toward a Cognitive Theory of Literary Character" for the author's own extensive summary of his theory. Schneider's Habilitationsschrift, only recently completed, extends his narratological research in the direction of media and communication studies. Literatursystem und Medienwandel: Systemische and anthropologische Aspekte der Entwicklung der Enahlliteratur in Grossbritannien (The System of Literature and Media Change) is particularly noteworthy for its close analysis of the intermedial features of Elizabethan prose, but, in the context of a typical German Habilitation, studies the history of mediatizations of narrative from the Renaissance to the late twentieth century. Schneider's theoretical approach is based on a synthesis of systems theory, cultural studies, and media-related anthropology.
I would like to conclude with a brief presentation of four collective volumes, three of which edited by Ansgar and Vera Niinning, and one by Ansgar Nunning. Each of these volumes represents an intergenerational research project on one central narratological issue, with the lead essay written by one or both Nunnings, followed by another one by Werner Wolf or Manfred Jahn, and then by a series of studies written by Nunning's doctoral or postdoctoral students. It is clear that all participants are working within one and the same theoretical and methodological paradigm, explicitly defined in each volume's lead essay, and are seeking to explore equally its theoretical implications and its historical applications.
Neue Ansaetze in der Erzahltheorie (2002) provides a survey of the major areas of postclassical narratology: feminist, postcolonial, possible-worlds, pragmatic, and cognitive, with a chapter devoted to each. The volume is introduced by the Nunnings' synoptic view of the differences in orientation between classical and postclassical narratologies, and the systematic relations (hierarchical, collateral) between the various areas of current narrative enquiry: linguistic, story-oriented, semantic, pragmatic, etc. Erzahltheorie transgenerisch, intermedial, interdisziplinar (2002) studies the possible extension of narratological models to other genres (drama, lyric), media (film, comics, hyperfiction), and disciplines (historiography, psychology). Here, too, the Nunnings lead off with an essay on "productive border crossings in narrative theory," followed by Wolf's comparative study of narrativity in literature, painting, and music. Each of the following essays deals with one possible narratological extension from the above list, and all are written by members of the upcoming generation of scholars.
Multiperspektivisches Erzahlen (2000) deals with the perspectival structure of the English novel, its theory and history since the eighteenth century. Once again, the Nunnings broach the subject by way of an introductory essay on the definition, conceptualization, and ways of researching multiperspectivity, offering their own innovative model of this area. And once again it is Wolf who follows with an essay on the notion of multiperspectivity and its application to frame tales and paratexts. Carola Surkamp's examination of multiperspectivity and possible-worlds theory is next, followed by essays on the forms and functions of multiperspectivity in various corpora, from nineteenth-century novels written by women to postmodernism, and two essays on multiperspectivism in film and historiography. Unreliable Narration (1998) starts off with Ansgar Niinning's essay, suggesting that unreliability be reconceptualized along cognitive lines. Manfred Jahn examines "package deals, exclusions and margins: unreliability in the narrative situation," and Dagmar Busch examines unreliability as manifested in narrative key components: speech, perspective, the representation of consciousness, and interplay of perspectives. Other essays look at unreliability and the mad dialogist, unreliability and epistemological doubt, and at various twentieth-century authors. All four volumes also provide comprehensive bibliographies of English and German pertinent theoretical and historical studies.
For the sake of completeness, let us mention once again a collective work already cited in the introduction: Tom Kindt and Hans-Harald Muller's collection What is Narratology? (2003), containing essays on the subject by three generations of scholars, from Wolf Schmid, who was already active in the late 1960s, through Martinez, Scheffel and Nunning, to Kindt and Muller themselves. While collective volumes are common in North America, too, intergenerational ones by leading scholars and advanced students who follow in their theoretical footsteps are rare (one exception is the collection entitled Possible Worlds and Literary Fictions, by Lubomir Dolezel and his Toronto students, and published as a special issue of Style (25.2 ). Maybe this is one more intellectual challenge presented by these two special issues.
As a supplement to the survey of German narratology provided in the introduction to these special issues, this afterword discusses some of the major work published since 2000 by German theorists of narrative, including books by Hilary Dannenberg, Andrea Gutenberg, Fotis Jannidis, Carola Surkamp, and Ralf Schneider, as well as a number of anthologies.
Dannenberg, Hilary P. Coincidence and Counterfactuality: Plotting Time, Space and Mind in Narrative Fiction, 1580-1998. Habilitationsschrift, U of Freiburg, 2001.
Gutenberg, Andrea. Mogliche Welten: Plot and Sinnstiftung im englischen Frauenroman. Heidelberg: Winter, 2000.
Jannidis, Fotis. Figur and Person. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2003.
Kindt, Tom, and Hans-Harald Muller, eds. What is Narratology? Questions and Answers Regarding the Status of a Theory. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2003.
Nunning, Ansgar, ed. Metzler Lexikon Literatur- und Kulturtheorie. 2nd, rev. ed. Stuttgart: Metzler, 2001.
__, ed. Unreliable Narration: Studien zur Theorie und Praxis unglaubwurdigen Erzahlens in der englischsprachigen Erzahlliteratur. Trier: WVT, 1998.
__, and Vera Niinning, eds. Erzahltheorie transgenerisch, intermedial, interdisziplinar. Trier: WVT, 2002.
__, eds. Multiperspektivisches Erzahlen: Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Perspektivenstruktur im englischen Roman des 18. bis 20. Jahrhunderts. Trier: WVT, 2000.
__, eds. Neue Ansdtze in der Erzahltheorie. Trier: WVT, 2002.
Schneider, Ralf. Grundriss zur kognitiven Theorie der Figurenrezeption am Beispiel des viktorianischen Romans. Tubingen: Stauffenburg Verlag, 2000.
__. Literatursystem und Medienwandel: Systemische und anthropologische Aspekte der Entwicklung der Erzahlliteratur in Grossbritannien. Habilitationsschrift, U of Freiburg, 2004.
__. "Toward a Cognitive Theory of Literary Character: The Dynamics of MentalModel Construction." Style 35 (2001): 607-40.
Surkamp, Carola. Die Perspektivenstruktur narrativer Texte: Zu ihrer Theorie und Geschichte im englischen Roman zwischen Viktorianismus und Moderne. Trier: WVT, 2003.
University of Alberta
Uri Margolin (email@example.com) is professor of Comparative Literature specializing in literary theory at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. Areas of interest include poetics, narratology, possible worlds semantics, cognitive approaches to literature, and literature and philosophy. Publications consist of close to sixty essays in numerous collective volumes, as well as in scholarly journals such as Style, Poetics Today, Semiotica, Narrative, and Journal of Literary Semantics.…
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Publication information: Article title: Coda: The Next Generation. Contributors: Margolin, Uri - Author. Journal title: Style. Volume: 38. Issue: 3 Publication date: Fall 2004. Page number: 376+. © 1998 Northern Illinois University. Provided by ProQuest LLC. All Rights Reserved.
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