Impact of the Mindanao Crises

Southeast Asian Affairs, January 1, 2001 | Go to article overview

Impact of the Mindanao Crises


The conflict in Muslim Mindanao has been a thorn in the side of successive Philippine presidents. When he came into office in 1998, in the wake of the 1996 Peace Agreement with the MNLF, Mindanao was not high on President Estrada's agenda. However, developments during 1999-2000 changed that.

Faced with the increasing militancy of the MILF, including the demand in 2000 for a U.N.-supervised referendum on independence, and continued failure to achieve progress towards a peaceful settlement, President Estrada eventually opted for "all-out war". His bellicose response to the MILF, and partial military successes, initially raised Estrada's popularity rating, but by year-end other developments had reversed that. Meanwhile, the military campaign against the MILF has been costly in terms of both expenditure on the military and on post-conflict reconstruction, and the adverse impact on foreign investment. The further deferral of the ARMM plebiscite, and growing dissatisfaction over the modest outcomes from the 1996 Agreement with the MNLF, raise the additional prospect of a breakdown in relations between the MNLF and the government. The antics of the Abu Sayyaf in 2000 provided another unwelcome distraction.

In 1997, Nur Misuari, speaking to a meeting of the Mindanao Republican Movement, had advocated a federal-style election of senators by region, and called for a Mindanaon vice-president (perhaps with himself in mind as a prospective Lakas-NUCD candidate in the elections of 1998).11 This "Mindanao Agenda" failed to win substantive support, however, and with the election of President Estrada, the issue faded. During 2000, the idea of a federal "solution" to the conflict in the south was revived. In May, prominent senators Francisco Tatad, John Osmena, and Aquilino Pimentel proposed that the Philippine Congress initiate a constitutional convention which could consider the creation of a federal system as "the ultimate solution to the peace process in Mindanao". They were supported by the chair of the Senate Committee on Constitutional Amendments and Revisions (Miriam Defensor Santiago), and also by Robert Aventajado, former congressman and Muslim scholar Michael Mastura, former University of the Philippines president Jose Abueva, and the Institute for Popular Democracy.12 In the following month, Tawi-Tawi congressman Nur Jaafar filed a resolution calling for a constituent assembly to consider the amendment of the constitution to implement a federal system. At least two NGOs have emerged to press for federalism: the Federal Movement of the Philippines and Lihuk Pederal Mindanao, a coalition of pro-federal groups and individuals. It seems unlikely that the Philippines will opt for a federal system, but the subject is now under debate, and is seen by many as a means of dealing with the demands for Moro separatism.

Externally, developments in Mindanao in 2000 brought greater international awareness of the tenuous nature of state control in western Mindanao and Sulu. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Impact of the Mindanao Crises
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.