Narratology: An Introduction

By Susana Onega ; Jose Angel Garcia Landa | Go to book overview

Notes
1.
RUDOLF ARNHEIM, Film as Art ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957; first published in 1933), p. 59; see also pp. 12, 24-9.
2.
On the distinction between screen and story world see, e.g., ALEXANDER SESONSKE , "'Cinema Space'" in Explorations of Phenomenology, ed. David Carr and Edward S. Casey (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1973), pp. 399-409; HAIG KHATCHADOURLIAN , "'Space and Time in Film,'" The British Journal of Aesthetics, 27. 2 (Spring 1987): 169-77.
3.
DAVID MARR, Vision: A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information ( San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1982).
4.
Kristin Thompson argues that 'A film depends on materiality for its existence; out of image and sound it creates its structures, but it can never make all the physical elements of the film part of its set of smooth perceptual cues. . . . [E]xcess arises from the conflict between the materality of a film and the unifying structures within it.' KRISTIN THOMPSON, "'The Concept of Cinematic Excess'" in Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology: A Film Theory Reader, ed. Philip Rosen ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), pp. 131-2 ( Thompson's emphasis); see also pp. 133-5. The concept of excess is sometimes paired with its opposite, a lack of lacuna, especially in psychoanalytic theories of narrative.
5.
NOËL BURCH, "'Carl Theodor Dreyer: The Major Phase'" in Cinema: A Critical Dictionary -- The Major Film Makers, vol. 1, ed. by Richard Roud ( New York: The Viking Press, 1980), pp. 298-9; ARNHEIM, Film as, Art, pp. 26-8.
6.
SERGEI EISENSTEIN, "'A Dialectic Approach to Film Form'" in Film Form: Essays in Film Theory, trans. by Jay Leyda ( New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1949), pp. 49, 54-7.
7.
SERGEI EISENSTEIN, The Film Sense, trans. by Jay Leyda ( New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1947), pp. 74-81, 201-3. I have been somewhat free in interpreting Eisensteins' notions of vertical and polyphonic montage.
8.
JULIAN HOCHBERG, "'Representation of Motion and Space in Video and Cinematic Displays'", in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, ed. Kenneth R. Boff, Lloyd Kaufman and James P. Thomas ( New York: Wiley, 1986), pp. 22-58.
9.
See EDWARD BRANIGAN, "'Diegesis and Authorship in Film,'" Iris 7, 4. 2 (Fall 1986): 37-54.
10.
The existence of bottom-up and top-down processes significantly alters the traditional distinction between perception and cognition. RAY JACKENDOFF, Consciousness and the Computational Mind ( Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1987), pp. 271-2. For an account of film perception describing some of these processes, see HOCHBERG, "'Representation of Motion and Space'", pp. 22-1 through 22-64 and VIRGINIA BROOKS, "'Film, Perception and Cognitive Psychology,'" Millennium Film Journal, 14/ 15 (Fall/Winter 1984-5): 105-26. See generally DAVID BORDWELL'S "'A Case for Cognitivism'"in a special issue of Iris 9 devoted to "'Cinema and Cognitive Psychology,'" 5. 2 (Spring 1989): 11-40.
11.
LAN JARVIE, Philosophy of the Film: Epistemology, Ontology, Aesthetics ( New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987), p. 130 ( Jarvie's emphases).
12.
BILL NICHOLS, "'The Voice of Documentary'" in Movies and Methods: An Anthology, vol. 2, ed. Bill Nichols ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), pp. 260-1 (my emphases).

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