CHAPTER IV
The New Phenomena resulting from the Instrumental Extension of Man's Unaided Senses
SUMMARY: In the first three chapters we have been studying the concept of reality (i.e. the set of concepts symbolically represented and organized into a semiotic world picture) as it existed in western thinking at the turn of the century. Agreeing that causality-determinism is part of the postulational structure of a semiotic rather than something to be looked for directly in experience, we examined language and classical physics and decided that causality-determinism is explicit in the first of these and implicitly part of the general semiotic structure incorporating classical physics, in the second. While our language-common-sense conceptual scheme permits some violations in the 'inexorable chain of cause and effect', particularly where man is concerned, we found that classical physics is rigidly deterministic in principle, if not everywhere in practice. In Mechanics, which was considered to be the most advanced division of Classical Physics, as well as its most ideal form, determinism was defined as meaning:
NaN. That the mathematical-syntactical structure of the theory is such that the insertion into it of a set of numerical values for the observables 'm', and 's1' and 'v1'at some 't1', and an analytical expression for 'f', leads to a determination of unique values for 's2' and 'v2' at any other 't2'.
NaN. That semantically the 's's', 'm's', and 'v's' are suitable observable quantities to describe experience, and can be simultaneously measured to any desired degree of accuracy.
NaN. That in practice suitable expressions for 'f' can be discovered such that, when combined with an actual measurement of 's1' and 'v1' at 't1', correct predictions for future positions and velocities can be made for all bodies in every possible kind of physical situation.

By 1890 classical physics had attained success unprecedented in the world's history in organizing a wide range of phenomena into a concise, unified, and quantitative conceptual structure. This range at that moment contained only the inanimate, and in fact only the simpler parts of that,

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