History of Labour in the United States - Vol. 2

By John R. Commons; David J. Saposs et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER X
THE AFTERMATH, 1886-1887

The Knights and the Federation. New national trade unions, 396. Efforts of the Knights to annex the skilled unions in order to strengthen the bargaining power of the unskilled, 397. Resistance of the skilled, 397. Situation in the early eighties, 397. Beginning of aggression, 398. District Assembly 49 of New York, 399. Conflict with the International Cigar Makers' Union, 399. The split in the latter, 399. The support of the secessionists by District Assembly 49, 400. The strike in New York in January, 1886, 400. Settlement with District Assembly 49, 400. Fusion of the seceders from the International Cigar Makers' Union with District Assembly 49, 401. Widening of the struggle, 401. Gompers' leadership, 401. General appeal to the trade unions, 402. Conflicts between the Knights and other trade unions, 402. Trade union conference in Philadelphia, 403. The "address," 404. Proposed treaty, 405. Reply of the Knights, 406. Refusal of the skilled trades to be used as a lever by the unskilled, 407. Further negotiations, 407. Declaration of war by the Knights, 409. Impetus for complete unification of the trade unions, 409. Convention of the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions in 1886, 409. The American Federation of Labor, 410. Its paramount activity -- economic, 410. Another effort for a settlement, 411. The outcome, 411. Arbitrary action of District Assembly 49 of New York,412. Return of the secessionist cigar makers to the International Union, 412. The Orders' new conciliatory attitude, 412. Non-conciliatory attitude of the unions, 413.

Subsidence of the Knights. Beginning of the backward tide in the Order, 413. The employers' reaction, 414. Forms of employers' associations, 414. Their aim, 414. Their refusal to arbitrate, 415. The means for the suppression of the Order, 415. The Knights' and the employers' attitude towards trade agreements, 416. Control over strikes in the Order, 416. Control over boycotts, 417. Strikes during the second half of 1886, 417. The Troy laundry workers' lockout, 418. The knit goods industry lockout, 418. Chicago packing industry lockout, 418. Powderly's weakness, 420. Longshoremen's strike in New York in 1887, 420. Its spread, 420. Its consequences, 421. Falling off of the Order's membership, 422. Recession of the wave of the unskilled, 422. Growing predominance of the middle-class element in the Order, 423. Success of the trade unions, 423. Chicago bricklayers' strike, 423. The employers' association and the trade agreement, 424. Situation in the bituminous coal industry, 425. National Federation of Miners and Mine Laborers, 425. Relations with the Order, 425. The "interstate" trade agreement, 426. Drift towards trade union organisation within the Order, 427. History of the national trade assemblies, 1180-1885, 427. Fluctuation of the Order's policy, 427. Its cause, 427. The victory of the national trade assembly ideal, 428.

-395-

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