To Be the Main Leaders of Our People: A History of Minnesota Ojibwe Politics, 1825-1898

By Rebecca Kugel | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 5
"They Show Their Disposition Pretty Plain": Civil and War Leadership in Symbiosis at Leech Lake, 1870-1900

T he people of White Earth attempted to maintain a core of valued behaviors and cultural traditions through the selective adaptations of Christian conversion and Euro-American farming technology, but foundered in political disputes. At Leech Lake a very different picture emerged, one all the more remarkable because superficially it resembled developments at White Earth. As early as the mid-1860s the Leech Lake civil leaders, echoing their fellows among the Mississippi villages, expressed an interest in Episcopalianism and agricultural technology "[W]e would like that you would establish a Mission in our country," eight civil leaders, identifying themselves as "chiefs of the Pillager Band," wrote to Episcopal Bishop Henry B. Whipple in 1866. Flat Mouth the Younger, the most influential of the Leech Lake civil leaders, also wrote personally to Whipple to assure him the Leech Lakers earnestly desired to "better our condition, and live as White people do." In both these activities, civil leaders were opposed by the warriors, a situation that seemingly resembled Hole-in-the-Day's coalition among the Mississippi Ojibwe in the 1860s and 1870s. As events at Leech Lake during the last thirty years of the nineteenth century reveal, however, the resemblance between the two situations was more apparent than real.1

The most obvious and striking difference involved the warriors themselves. The Leech Lake warriors had some ties to influential traders and bicultural Métis, and certainly shared the hostility of these groups toward the economic and social changes envisioned by Euro-American government officials and Indian reformers. However, they never formed an alliance with other persons committed to the older, hunting/gathering and trapping lifestyle, as happened among the Mississippi villagers. Instead, the Leech Lake warriors remained much more of an aboriginal war organization. In the words of the anthropologist Harold Hickerson, their relationship with the civil leaders continued to be "simultaneously one of solidarity and opposition." Youthful Leech Lake warriors both contested the elderly civil leaders

-167-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
To Be the Main Leaders of Our People: A History of Minnesota Ojibwe Politics, 1825-1898
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 230

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.