America's Struggle with Chemical-Biological Warfare

By Albert J. Mauroni | Go to book overview
Save to active project

Notes

CHAPTER 1: SWORDS OR SHIELDS: THE DEBATE OVER WMDS
1.
More precisely, the military makes a distinction between toxic chemical agents (which create casualties) and herbicides and riot control agents (which temporarily incapacitate and do not create casualties if properly used). Some arms control advocates claim that riot control agents (RCAs), developed in the 1960s, and incendiary munitions (such as napalm) should be considered as chemical warfare agents. Technically, CS and other riot control agents are chemical compounds and are often referred to as chemical agents in 1960s Army technical manuals. It must be noted that RCAs such as CS tear gas do not permanently maim or kill their targets as a result of exposure to the powder or gases alone (when used in typical employment scenarios). While pumping a room with burning CS gas may cause casualties, that is caused by the absence of oxygen rather than the actions of the tear gas. In a similar fashion, the jellied substance napalm is not harmful until it is burning, as opposed to the actions of mustard gas on contact with flesh. For these reasons, the United States has always differentiated between the applicability of incendiaries, RCAs, and chemical warfare agents under the laws of combat while often developing the agents and their munitions in the same laboratories.
2.
Edward M. Spiers, Chemical and Biological Weapons: A Study of Proliferation ( New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994), p. 5.
3.
Carbamates are also categorized as nerve agents, but they are solid and not organophosphates as opposed to tabun, sarin, soman, and VX. Carbamates were not weaponized, as they are not as intrusive as liquids and aerosols.
4.
See Public Law105-736, House language section 1045, Chemical Warfare Defense.

CHAPTER 2: THE CHEMICAL CORPS ENTERS THE COLD WAR
1.
Frederick Brown, Chemical Warfare; A Study in Restraints ( Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1968), pp. 191-95.
2.
Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, Chemical and Biological Weapons: Some Possible Approaches for Lessening the Threat and Danger ( Washington, DC: GPO, 1969), p. 47.
3.
The Chemical Corps Association, The Chemical Warfare Service in World War II ( New York: Reinhold Publishing, 1948), pp. 20-21, 36.

-263-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
America's Struggle with Chemical-Biological Warfare
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 293

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?