The International Politics of Agricultural Trade: Canadian-American Relations in a Global Agricultural Context

By Theodore H. Cohn | Go to book overview

Despite its acknowledged success, the Blended Credit Program was suspended in February 1985 for an unexpected reason. In that year, a U.S. court decided that the Cargo Preference Act applied to blended credit. The CCC then discontinued the program because the impact of increased costs for transport in U.S.-registered vessels made it less competitive. Nevertheless, an end to blended credit did not signify that U.S. efforts to increase its credit offerings were abating. Indeed, the 1985 Food Security Act required the CCC to make available no less than $ 5.5 billion in short- and intermediate-term credit guarantees a year. 61

As price competition intensified in the 1980s, it became evident that credit programs alone could not prevent the erosion of the U.S. market share. In fact, the CCC was not able to allocate the full $ 5.5 billion in credit guarantees to importing countries because U.S. agricultural prices were not competitive in the world market. Credit and credit guarantees were also being offered by other exporters, and the CCC would not provide guarantees to some countries that were high credit risks. 62 The United States therefore began to focus its efforts on export subsidies through the Export Enhancement Program. While the EEP does not involve the provision of credit, the two export promotion techniques are interrelated. For example, export credit guarantees have been made available in many of the EEP initiatives, and "the credit guarantee has been extremely important in consummating some EEP sales."63

In contrast to the United States, Canada's agricultural export assistance in the 1980s has not thus far led to any significant innovations. The financing facilities of the Credit Grain Sales Program were considered "reasonably adequate" for CWB exports and relied on the private financial sector without calling on the existing authority for government credit guarantees. The EDC could offer mixed credits (concessional loans combined with commercial EDC export credits) from 1981"to help otherwise competitive Canadian exporters obtain financing that at least matched foreign concessional offers."64 The Canadian government did create a new agricultural export promotion mechanism in January 1984, the controversial crown corporation Canagrex, but it was described as duplicating other facilities and was dissolved in March 1985. Finally, plans for an "aid-trade facility" were abandoned in early 1986 as a result of budgetary constraints.


CONCLUSIONS

In conclusion, Canada was often able to compete with the United States in providing agricultural export credit. Canada was therefore willing to adopt unilateral strategies and frequently led the way in such areas as extending

-136-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The International Politics of Agricultural Trade: Canadian-American Relations in a Global Agricultural Context
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface and Acknowledgments ix
  • 1 - Introduction 3
  • 2 - An Overview of Canadian- American Agricultural Trade Relations 33
  • CONCLUSIONS 48
  • 3 - The Organizational Setting 50
  • CONCLUSIONS 63
  • CONCLUSIONS 88
  • 5 - American Surplus Disposal Measures 91
  • CONCLUSIONS 108
  • 6 - Canadian and U.S. Agricultural Export Credits 111
  • CONCLUSIONS 136
  • 7 - Agricultural Trade Barriers 139
  • CONCLUSIONS 177
  • 8 - Conclusion 180
  • Notes 205
  • Selected Bibliography 229
  • Acronyms and Abbreviations 257
  • Index 259
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 270

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.