Managing Diverse Human Resources for Globalization
A. V. SUBBARAO
This chapter discusses the diversity of human resources in two developed countries, the United States and Canada, and in three developing countries, India, Malaysia and Sri Lanka. The public policies of these nations that are influencing management of workforce diversity are analyzed separately as equality, equity, job preference and job reservation models. A representation model is presented for managing diverse human resources in workplaces that compete in global markets.
Globalization of markets is a reality, and managing workplaces for competition in global markets is the challenge that managers face today and in the future ( Pucik, Tichy and Barnett, 1993). The global workforce is recognized as an important resource for competition ( Johnston, 1991), and mobility of the global workforce poses a challenge to managers to manage this important resource efficiently and effectively. Mobility of workforce from developing to developed countries ( World Bank, 1995) is increasing the diversity of the workforce in indiustrialized nations, particularly in North America which relied on immigrants to meet the demand for knowledge workers. Increasing investment opportunities in developing nations through joint ventures are not only facilitating the transfer of knowledge, but are also increasing the diversity of knowledge workers in developing countries. The diversity of workforce in developed and developing countries has also been increasing steadily during the last three decades due to the increasing participation of women and other segments of the population in labor markets ( Workforce 2000, 1987).
Human resource management policies and practices in the past were developed for a workforce that was not as diverse as it is today. In the organized sectors of the industry, they were developed jointly through negotiations be