Islam and Modernization: A Comparative Analysis of Pakistan, Egypt, and Turkey

By Javaid Saeed | Go to book overview

product. He considered religion to be "a mode of consciousness both false and perverted; the happiness it offers, bogus and illusory. . . . In order to progress from these irrationalities to rationality . . . religion must be abolished, its disastrous effects transcended." 85 But did Marx really understand religion apart from the fact that it had historically been abused in the social, economic, and political realms? Delos B. McKown has shown that Marx's etiology of religion is "ill-informed and illogical." 86 And Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Kautsky never addressed the issue of death, which is as important as life itself. They focused entirely on life, and ignoring death, they only attempted to understand one part of life, which cannot be understood without understanding the implications of death. 87

Despite serious flaws in the Marxist approach and understanding of religion, it has the merit of approaching religion functionally. This approach makes it possible to study the religious phenomena objectively. 88 The Marxist critique of religion was correct in pointing out that religion must be judged on the basis of what it does to a society.


CONCLUSION

Religion is a very powerful force. It can work both positively and negatively, depending on the content of a particular religious doctrine, and its interpretation and application. It is a serious matter that requires the full exercise of human intellect. For this reason it needs to be studied and applied carefully and intelligently.

In the course of the development history of the West, religion has played a major role. Philosophers have wrestled with profound issues and have critically examined their relevance in the operations of societies. Religion hindered progress as long as it remained dogmatic, unexamined, and an exclusive domain of some people. In the process of analysis, it provided useful insights that allowed societies to move forward. The tension between religion and society at large is a healthy one and need not be deplored. It may well be that some religious doctrines are antithetical to progress or development. If this is the case, serious questions must be raised as to the validity of those doctrines. Needless to say, this presupposes a critical approach to religious doctrines and the existence of a tolerant intellectual environment in which it is possible to critically evaluate and interpret those ideas, customs, and practices that become established over a period of time.

Beyond doubt, religion becomes an obstacle to progress when it is politicized or becomes an object of politics. The same is true when the religious establishment controls or attempts to control the functioning of a society. The Western experience leaves no doubt on this score. However, secularization, as commonly understood, is not a necessary condition for development; in fact, it

-43-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Islam and Modernization: A Comparative Analysis of Pakistan, Egypt, and Turkey
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables vii
  • Preface ix
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Explaining Modernization 9
  • 3 - Religion and Modernization 25
  • Conclusion 43
  • 4 - Islam and Modernization 45
  • Conclusion 69
  • 5 - The Religiopolitical System of Pakistan and Modernizatton 73
  • Conclusion 112
  • 6 - The Religiopolitical System of Egypt and Modernization 117
  • Conclusion 154
  • 7 - The Religiopolitical System of Turkey and Modernization 157
  • Conclusion 196
  • 8 - Conclusion 197
  • Notes 209
  • Bibliography 247
  • Index 257
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 264

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.