International Handbook of Medical Education

By Abdul W. Sajid; Christine H. McGuire et al. | Go to book overview

in standard setting and evaluation, but only a part, and it follows that licensure per se is, therefore, only one mechanism among many for quality control. However, publicly accepted licensure requirements and processes legitimize external methods of evaluation and thus can be a tremendous force for establishing and maintaining the quality of medical education, enhancing subsequent practice, and forcing the establishment of internal standards.

Change inevitably results in tensions and conflicts. Healthy organizations and enlightened societies can manage these conflicts to a constructive and effective outcome. The chapters in this book describe the evolution of medical education in countries from various parts of the world. They describe changes that have taken place in the past and some set the scene for changes to come in the future. We can all learn much from each other and we can all support each other in our struggles to enhance the health of people everywhere through improvements in medical education. The tasks will not be easy, the conflicts and tensions many, but there is a sense that the time has come for significant change and that individuals, organizations and institutions everywhere connected with the profession of medicine are ready to undertake the effort for the common good. A recent report entitled "Health Research: Essential Link to Equity and Development," from the Commission on Health Research for Development, states that our world has become a global health village generating an urgent need for mutual learning and joint action, and that every country must decide what it can contribute to the international effort to master the world's unsolved health problems ( Evans 1990). To paraphrase the philosophy of the late Alan Woods in his testimony before the U.S. Congress in 1990, increasingly, the prospects of all of us for a secure and prosperous future are linked to the fortunes of other nations ( Woods 1989).


REFERENCES

Evans J. (Chair). Commission on Health Research for Development. 1990. Health research: Essential link to equity in development. Oxford University Press. See esp. pp. 1-136.

Monahan T. J. 1990. State medical boards and licensing examinations. National Board of Medical Examiners 75th anniversary: In service to medicine. Philadelphia: National Board of Medical Examiners, p. 35.

Muller S. (Chair). 1984. Physicians for the twenty-first century. Report of the Project Panel on the General Professional Education of the Physician and College Preparation for Medicine. J Med Educ 59 (11, Part 2):1-208.

Stillman P. L., M. B. Regan, H. A. Haley, J. J. Norcini, M. Friedman, and A. I. Sutnick. 1992. The use of a patient note to evaluate clinical skills in first-year residents who are graduates of foreign medical schools. Acad Med 67:S57-S59.

Sutnick A. I., L. P. Ross, and M. P. Wilson. 1992. Assessment of clinical competencies by the Foreign Medical Graduate Examination in the Medical Sciences (FMGEMS). Teaching and Learning in Medicine 4:150-155.

Sutnick A. I., P. L. Stillman, J. J. Norcini, M. Friedman, M. B. Regan, R. G. Williams, E. K. Kachur, M. A. Haggerty, and M. P. Wilson. 1993. ECFMG assessment of clinical competence of graduates of foreign medical schools. JAMA 270:1041-1045.

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International Handbook of Medical Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Preface xv
  • 1: An Overview of Medical Education in the Late Twentieth Century 1
  • References 12
  • 2: Evaluation and Change in Medical Education 13
  • References 18
  • 3: Australia 21
  • References 35
  • 4: Belgium 37
  • References 48
  • 5: Brazil 53
  • 6: Canada 65
  • References 75
  • 7: The Commonwealth (English-Speaking) Caribbean 81
  • References 96
  • 8: Chile 101
  • References 107
  • 9: The People's Republic of China 109
  • References 123
  • 10: Czech and Slovak Federative Republic 131
  • References 139
  • 11: Egypt 141
  • References 154
  • 12: France 155
  • References 169
  • 13: Germany 175
  • References 186
  • 14: Hungary 191
  • References 203
  • 15: India 207
  • References 219
  • 16: Israel 231
  • References 246
  • 17: Italy 249
  • References 254
  • 18: Japan 259
  • References 267
  • 19: Malaysia 275
  • References 288
  • 20: Mexico 291
  • References 300
  • 21: The Netherlands 305
  • References 317
  • 22: Nigeria 321
  • References 327
  • 23: Pakistan 331
  • References 342
  • 24: Poland 347
  • References 358
  • 25: Russia (Former USSR) 359
  • References 368
  • 26: South Africa 369
  • 27: Thailand 377
  • References 390
  • 28: United Kingdom 393
  • References 403
  • 29: United States of America 405
  • References 415
  • 30: Venezuela 417
  • References 428
  • Appendix A: General Country Demographics, 1989 437
  • Appendix B: Medical School Demographics, by Country 441
  • Appendix C: Admission Policies and Requirements, by Country 447
  • Appendix D: Policy Making Bodies with a Role in Medical Education 459
  • Appendix E: Professional Organizations with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 465
  • Appendix F: Governmental Agencies with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 469
  • Appendix G: Selected Bibliography 473
  • Appendix H: Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in This Handbook 485
  • Index 495
  • About the Contributors 511
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