International Handbook of Medical Education

By Abdul W. Sajid; Christine H. McGuire et al. | Go to book overview

11
Egypt

NABILA HIDAYET

Medical education in Egypt can be traced back to the time of the Pharaohs, when healers, magicians, and physicians received different types of training, each according to their disease realm, whether natural or supernatural. Priest- physicians ranked highest among all categories of healers, followed by lay physicians. From the strict hierarchy of their titles, it is surmised that some control was exerted on their activities, whether from their peers or the state. According to the Greek historian Diodorus, physicians were severely treated if their management of diseases deviated from the books, which implies the existence of formal teaching and recognized texts. There is no doubt that in their search for knowledge and wisdom, candidates frequently visited the "Houses of Life" attached to temples that functioned as documentation centers. In his book, Ghalioungi gave, with good justification, an important place to the influences exerted by Egyptian medical science on the beginnings of Greek medicine.

The Egyptians also developed medical knowledge, although most of their medical texts treat illness as supernatural in cause and cure, some show an understanding of the body probably gained from the practice of embalming the dead. A document called the Edwin Smith surgical papyrus . . . contains the idea that the heart is the source of the body's life and influences the rest of the body, . . . describes various kinds of bone fractures and suggests rest, diet, surgery, and various medications. Other texts show that there were Egyptian specialists in ailments of the eye, teeth and internal organs. A number of popular therapeutics actually practiced in Egypt today are no doubt directly inherited from ancestors and treatments prescribed in hieroglyphic documents ( Ghalioungi 1973).

In contemporary Egypt, Mohamed Ali opened the first medical school at Abou Zaabal, Cairo, in 1827 ( Mahfouz 1935). The curriculum of the school was based on the Western biomedical paradigm and modeled on the British system. The school was placed under the direction of a European and was intended to train medical specialists. In 1919, this medical school became the Faculty of Medicine in Cairo University. Medical and health services gradually developed,

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International Handbook of Medical Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Preface xv
  • 1: An Overview of Medical Education in the Late Twentieth Century 1
  • References 12
  • 2: Evaluation and Change in Medical Education 13
  • References 18
  • 3: Australia 21
  • References 35
  • 4: Belgium 37
  • References 48
  • 5: Brazil 53
  • 6: Canada 65
  • References 75
  • 7: The Commonwealth (English-Speaking) Caribbean 81
  • References 96
  • 8: Chile 101
  • References 107
  • 9: The People's Republic of China 109
  • References 123
  • 10: Czech and Slovak Federative Republic 131
  • References 139
  • 11: Egypt 141
  • References 154
  • 12: France 155
  • References 169
  • 13: Germany 175
  • References 186
  • 14: Hungary 191
  • References 203
  • 15: India 207
  • References 219
  • 16: Israel 231
  • References 246
  • 17: Italy 249
  • References 254
  • 18: Japan 259
  • References 267
  • 19: Malaysia 275
  • References 288
  • 20: Mexico 291
  • References 300
  • 21: The Netherlands 305
  • References 317
  • 22: Nigeria 321
  • References 327
  • 23: Pakistan 331
  • References 342
  • 24: Poland 347
  • References 358
  • 25: Russia (Former USSR) 359
  • References 368
  • 26: South Africa 369
  • 27: Thailand 377
  • References 390
  • 28: United Kingdom 393
  • References 403
  • 29: United States of America 405
  • References 415
  • 30: Venezuela 417
  • References 428
  • Appendix A: General Country Demographics, 1989 437
  • Appendix B: Medical School Demographics, by Country 441
  • Appendix C: Admission Policies and Requirements, by Country 447
  • Appendix D: Policy Making Bodies with a Role in Medical Education 459
  • Appendix E: Professional Organizations with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 465
  • Appendix F: Governmental Agencies with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 469
  • Appendix G: Selected Bibliography 473
  • Appendix H: Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in This Handbook 485
  • Index 495
  • About the Contributors 511
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