International Handbook of Medical Education

By Abdul W. Sajid; Christine H. McGuire et al. | Go to book overview

14
Hungary

GÁBOR SZABÓ FERENC BOJÁN

Hungary is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It covers approximately thirty-six thousand square miles and has a relatively homogeneous population of 10.3 million (as of 1990). The population is increasingly urban (60 percent), with more than 2 million people living in the capital, Budapest. The Hungarian economy was almost exclusively agricultural until after World War II, when great emphasis was placed on industrial development. Traditionally, all sectors of Hungarian life were influenced heavily by Germany.


OVERVIEW OF THE HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM

Hungarian medicine was also rooted in the West, with strong ties to Austria and Germany before World War II. Medical doctors were well trained and concentrated in the large cities. They were usually in private practice and often associated with insurance companies. The number of hospital beds was comparable to that in other European countries. However, access to health service was very selective, dependent primarily on the socioeconomic status of each individual, and unavailable to many. Only 31 percent of the population was covered by health insurance in the 1930s. Agricultural and poor urban workers had no insurance. Consequently, Hungary was chronically far behind the West in terms of health status. After World War II, Hungary was occupied by the Soviet Union. The Communist party took power in 1948, and Hungary became a socialist state along Soviet lines, with a planned economy and centralized society, including the organization of health services and education, though these were never as centralized in Hungary as in other Soviet satellites.

After World War II, a new strategy was adopted to reconstruct and develop the health care infrastructure and to establish the socialist health services system. The major elements of the health policy included the right to free health services, universal accessibility to health services, equality of access to services for the entire population, entitlement to the highest level health care required by each

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International Handbook of Medical Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Preface xv
  • 1: An Overview of Medical Education in the Late Twentieth Century 1
  • References 12
  • 2: Evaluation and Change in Medical Education 13
  • References 18
  • 3: Australia 21
  • References 35
  • 4: Belgium 37
  • References 48
  • 5: Brazil 53
  • 6: Canada 65
  • References 75
  • 7: The Commonwealth (English-Speaking) Caribbean 81
  • References 96
  • 8: Chile 101
  • References 107
  • 9: The People's Republic of China 109
  • References 123
  • 10: Czech and Slovak Federative Republic 131
  • References 139
  • 11: Egypt 141
  • References 154
  • 12: France 155
  • References 169
  • 13: Germany 175
  • References 186
  • 14: Hungary 191
  • References 203
  • 15: India 207
  • References 219
  • 16: Israel 231
  • References 246
  • 17: Italy 249
  • References 254
  • 18: Japan 259
  • References 267
  • 19: Malaysia 275
  • References 288
  • 20: Mexico 291
  • References 300
  • 21: The Netherlands 305
  • References 317
  • 22: Nigeria 321
  • References 327
  • 23: Pakistan 331
  • References 342
  • 24: Poland 347
  • References 358
  • 25: Russia (Former USSR) 359
  • References 368
  • 26: South Africa 369
  • 27: Thailand 377
  • References 390
  • 28: United Kingdom 393
  • References 403
  • 29: United States of America 405
  • References 415
  • 30: Venezuela 417
  • References 428
  • Appendix A: General Country Demographics, 1989 437
  • Appendix B: Medical School Demographics, by Country 441
  • Appendix C: Admission Policies and Requirements, by Country 447
  • Appendix D: Policy Making Bodies with a Role in Medical Education 459
  • Appendix E: Professional Organizations with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 465
  • Appendix F: Governmental Agencies with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 469
  • Appendix G: Selected Bibliography 473
  • Appendix H: Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in This Handbook 485
  • Index 495
  • About the Contributors 511
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