International Handbook of Medical Education

By Abdul W. Sajid; Christine H. McGuire et al. | Go to book overview

Mobility Programme for University Studies (TEMPUS), which have promoted exchanges of experiences and a more homogeneous approach to medical education, even if on a still limited scale. Both programs encourage circulation of students and teachers in various European universities participating in Interuniversity Cooperative Programmes (ICP). ERASMUS and TEMPUS provide travel and accommodation expenses for participants. The WHO policy of "Health for All" and the Edinburgh Declaration are not incorporated in the criteria for training programs, because they are not widely known and because their impact on the teachers' approach has not been significant ( Menu and Garcia- Barbero 1991; Ghetti 1991).


ISSUES AND TRENDS

Competencies of graduates for the next century are still debated and have not been yet defined at the national level, but it is thought that with the increasing unification of the European countries, progressive educational policy will be discussed and agreed upon at a multinational level. Up to now, educational technology has played a limited role, although a national research program on computer-aided learning in medical education has now involved 14 medical schools. ( Ghetti 1988a; Lucchelli 1991; Fondazione Smith Kline 1981)

A new health paradigm is not yet apparent and health care is still very much focused on high-technology, and extremely specialized, medical care. However, economic constraints are rapidly emerging and regional governments are already taking steps to reduce costs of medical care. A reorientation of health care, with more emphasis on prevention and primary care, is therefore to be expected in the near future.


REFERENCES

Bompiani A., P. Carinci, and V. Ghetti, eds. 1992. Facolta di medicina e Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (II) (Faculty of Medicine and national health service ([II]; in Italian). Fondazione Smith Kline.

Fondazione Smith Kline. 1984. Introduzione alla Pedagogia Medica (Introduction to medical education. (in Italian.) Fondazione Smith Kline.

-----. 1983. La sperimentazione didattica nella Facoltà di Medicina (I) (Didactic experimentation in medical schools ([I] in Italian.) Fondazione Smith Kline.

-----. 1981. La Facoltà di Medicina verso il futuro (The medical school facing the future, in Italian.) Fondazione Smith Kline.

Ghetti V., ed. 1991a. La prevenzione: un problema da governare. (Disease prevention: a problem to be faced; in Italian). Fondazione Smith Kline, Franco Angeli Series.

-----. 1991b. Il sistema sanitario europeo senza frontiere (The European health care system without barriers, in Italian). Fondazione Smith Kline, Franco Angeli Series.

-----. 1988a. Bisogno di salute e risposta della Medicina: ruolo dei servizi (The relevance of medicine to present health needs: The role of health services and medical education; in Italian). Franco Angeli Series: Fondazione Smith Kline.

-----. 1988b. Nuove tendenze nella formazione del medico (New trends in medical education; in Italian). Franco Angeli Series: Fondazione Smith Kline.

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International Handbook of Medical Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Preface xv
  • 1: An Overview of Medical Education in the Late Twentieth Century 1
  • References 12
  • 2: Evaluation and Change in Medical Education 13
  • References 18
  • 3: Australia 21
  • References 35
  • 4: Belgium 37
  • References 48
  • 5: Brazil 53
  • 6: Canada 65
  • References 75
  • 7: The Commonwealth (English-Speaking) Caribbean 81
  • References 96
  • 8: Chile 101
  • References 107
  • 9: The People's Republic of China 109
  • References 123
  • 10: Czech and Slovak Federative Republic 131
  • References 139
  • 11: Egypt 141
  • References 154
  • 12: France 155
  • References 169
  • 13: Germany 175
  • References 186
  • 14: Hungary 191
  • References 203
  • 15: India 207
  • References 219
  • 16: Israel 231
  • References 246
  • 17: Italy 249
  • References 254
  • 18: Japan 259
  • References 267
  • 19: Malaysia 275
  • References 288
  • 20: Mexico 291
  • References 300
  • 21: The Netherlands 305
  • References 317
  • 22: Nigeria 321
  • References 327
  • 23: Pakistan 331
  • References 342
  • 24: Poland 347
  • References 358
  • 25: Russia (Former USSR) 359
  • References 368
  • 26: South Africa 369
  • 27: Thailand 377
  • References 390
  • 28: United Kingdom 393
  • References 403
  • 29: United States of America 405
  • References 415
  • 30: Venezuela 417
  • References 428
  • Appendix A: General Country Demographics, 1989 437
  • Appendix B: Medical School Demographics, by Country 441
  • Appendix C: Admission Policies and Requirements, by Country 447
  • Appendix D: Policy Making Bodies with a Role in Medical Education 459
  • Appendix E: Professional Organizations with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 465
  • Appendix F: Governmental Agencies with a Role in Medical Education, by Country 469
  • Appendix G: Selected Bibliography 473
  • Appendix H: Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in This Handbook 485
  • Index 495
  • About the Contributors 511
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