medical educators on "conducting research on reform in medical education" and published the proceedings, findings, conclusions and recommendations of the conference in a report in 1987. The Edinburg Declaration (1988) of the World Federation for Medical Education also stimulated reform of medical education in Japan. Different models of reform in medical education have been voluntarily started in almost all medical schools in Japan.
The basic principles and methods of reform mentioned in the above reports have been noticed and strengthened by recommendations and activities sponsored by the private sector connected with medical education. Innovative teaching and learning methods, problem-oriented education, self-learning, and the introduction of educational technology are now being considered in medical schools throughout the country.
Japan was once concerned about the potential oversupply of physicians. On the other hand, inasmuch as the increasing demand for physicians for administrative fields, international cooperation, and participation in new health systems is gradually becoming apparent, the national policy is now being reexamined.
The public demand for health care of an ever expanding aging population, for a universal health care system and for a reexamination of medical ethics and other social problems will stimulate the reform of Japanese medical education in the 1990s.
Clinical Training Research Conference and Ministry of Health and Welfare, eds. 1993. Guidebook of clinical training hospitals (in Japanese). Tokyo: Nihon Iji Shimpo.
Japan Medical Association. 1991. Annual report of national health services 1991 (in Japanese). Tokyo: Japan Medical Association, 2-18-16, Honkomagome, Bunkyoku. (In Japanese.)
Promoting medical education research (A Proposal, in Japanese). 1990. Igaku Kyoiku (Medical Education, Japan) 21 ( 2):130-131.
Teacher training in Japan (International News). 1992. Teaching and Learning in Medicine 4 ( 4):247-248.
Ushiba D. 1985. Trends of medical education in Japan. Medical Education 19:258-265.
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Publication information: Book title: International Handbook of Medical Education. Contributors: Abdul W. Sajid - Editor, Christine H. McGuire - Editor, Rebecca Monroe Veach - Editor, Laura R. Aziz - Editor, Linda K. Gunzburger - Editor. Publisher: Greenwood Press. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 1994. Page number: 267.
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