The French Revolution Debate in English Literature and Culture

By Lisa Plummer Crafton | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
Robert Southey, "The State and Prospects of the Country," Quarterly Review 39 ( April 1829): 475-520. The cited quotation is from 483. Hedva Ben- Israel and J. J. Sack insightfully discuss Whig and Tory attitudes toward the French Revolution during the 1820s; their research calls into question F. P. Lock's assertion that between 1793 and the 1830s, attitudes toward Burke, and therefore toward the French Revolution, were largely determined by party loyalties. Lock's assertion is more true of the 1830s than it is of the 1820s. See Ben-Israel English Historians on the French Revolution ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968), esp. chapters 1-4; Sack, "The Memory of Burke and the Memory of Pitt: English Conservatism Confronts its Past, 1806-1829," The Historical Journal 30 ( 1987): 623-40, esp. 623-28; and Lock Burke Reflections on the Revolution in France ( London: Allen and Unwin, 1985), 167.
2.
Ben-Israel describes in detail the rhetorical battle between Croker and Macauley in the House of Commons and in the major reviews during 1831 and 1832. During these years both men supported their antagonistic positions on reform by appeal to examples and lessons drawn from the French Revolution. Macauley, for example, blames the destruction of the French nobility on its stubborn opposition to reforms, whereas Croker blames it on the nobility's "deplorable pusillanimity" in granting them. See Ben-Israel, 103.
3.
The Collected Letters of Thomas and Jane Welsh Carlyle, ed. Charles Richard Sanders , K. J. Fielding, and Clyde de L. Ryals, 18 vols. to date ( Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1970-). The quotation is from 6:446.
4.
Carlyle struggled to articulate his theory of history and history-writing in two essays of this period, "On History" ( 1830) and "On History Again" ( 1833).
5.
The Works of Thomas Carlyle, ed. H. D. Traill, 30 vols. ( London: Chapman and Hall, 1899). For the quotation, see 29:149-50.
6.
Two Notebooks: From 23rd March 1822 to 16th May 1832, ed. Charles Eliot Norton ( N.Y.: The Grolier Club, 1893). See 178-79.
7.
See Ben-Israel, 102-7, 291-92.
8.
Ben-Israel notes that, with regard to the French Revolution, "more than anything else it was the separation of history from politics which was beginning to win" in the wake of the passage of the Reform Bill and that Carlyle had much to do with that separation (108).
9.
Studies of Carlyle as historian typically mention Burke and the Reflections far less frequently and in far less detail than they mention, for example, almost any of the German writers and thinkers Carlyle read in the 1820s. There are, however, several noteworthy exceptions to this generalization. Louise M. Young, in Thomas Carlyle and the Art of History ( Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1939), examines Carlyle as an inheritor of Burke through Coleridge, though she reads Carlyle as more orthodoxly conservative than he was (43-46, 69-88). Ben-Israel ( 1968) recognizes significant affinities between Burke and Carlyle,

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The French Revolution Debate in English Literature and Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions to the Study of World Literature ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgments vii
  • Introduction ix
  • Notes xv
  • Chronology xvii
  • Burke's Perception of Richard Price 1
  • Notes 21
  • Religion and Politics in the Revolution Debate: Burke, Wollstonecraft, Paine 27
  • Notes 38
  • The "Ancient Voices" of Blake's The French Revolution 41
  • Notes 53
  • Arguing Benevolence: Wordsworth, Godwin, and the 1790s 59
  • Notes 76
  • "Great Burke," Thomas Carlyle, and the French Revolution 83
  • Notes 103
  • Politics of the Episteme: The Collapse of the Discourse of General Nature and the Reaction to the French Revolution 107
  • Notes 118
  • Representations of Revolutionary Women in Political Caricature 123
  • Notes 131
  • Postscript: The French Revolution and Romanticism 137
  • Select Bibliography 145
  • Index 149
  • About the Contributors 155
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