The Evolution of Educational Theory in the United States

By Dickson A. Mungazi | Go to book overview

5
The Theory of Secondary, Higher, and Teacher Education

A teaching profession cannot be established on a basis which only covers the work of the common schools. The knowledge that is to be conveyed to the child is not all that is required on the part of the teacher.

-- Andrew Traper, 1890


THEORY OF LATIN GRAMMAR SCHOOL

The evolution of the theory of secondary education was a much slower process than that of the common school movement. When John Eliot ( 1604-1690), who had graduated from Jesus College, Cambridge, in 1621, arrived in Boston in 1633 he shared some ideas about how education in the New World could be improved. He succeeded in persuading the authorities to pass legislation to direct the course of education. The result was that the Massachusetts General Court passed legislation in 1642 and 1647 along the lines that Eliot had suggested. As unique, exciting, and innovative as these two pieces of legislation were, they were overshadowed by more pressing needs to survive in the hostile wilderness. Although their impact was considerable, they did not form a sustainable pattern of development until after the Revolutionary War. Although the colonial society did what it considered necessary to promote primary education and higher education, there was little that was done to promote the development of secondary education.

Primary education was developed during the colonial period because it was considered essential to reading, writing, arithmetic, and moral and religious values. Higher education was developed because it was considered essential to the training of individuals to enter the ministry and become preachers and leaders in the community. But there was no immediate purpose for the development of secondary education. During the colonial period the Latin Grammar school was the equivalent of high school. However, the Latin Grammar school did not meet the needs of individuals and society in the same way that primary education and higher education did in their

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The Evolution of Educational Theory in the United States
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents ix
  • Foreword xi
  • Preface xv
  • Acknowledgments xix
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - The Origins of the Theory of Western Education 15
  • Notes 34
  • 2 - Theory During the Colonial Period 37
  • Notes 57
  • 3 - Theory During the Revolutionary Period 61
  • Notes 80
  • 4 - Theory During the Common School Movement 83
  • 5 - The Theory of Secondary, Higher, and Teacher Education 103
  • Notes 121
  • 6 - The Courts and the Theory of Education for African Americans 125
  • 7 - Theory to Address National Problems: From Warren G. Harding to Bill Clinton 153
  • Notes 181
  • Conclusion 210
  • Notes 211
  • Selected Bibliography 215
  • Index 237
  • About the Author 251
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