Chapter 4 also introduces a modern trend in teacher education sometimes called the reflective teacher that involves journal writing, professional discourse, and action research. Theoretical foundations for this approach to professional training originated in models employed in psychiatry, social work, psychotherapy, counseling, and allied fields.
Chapter 5 explores historical perspectives and what is now known about the cognitive style conceptualization. Theories of perception, personality development, and self-concept are central to an understanding of the work associated with this cognitive preference. Themes, categories, and organizing associated with sorting tasks are important elements in measuring the nature of conceptualizing as a cognitive preference.
Chapter 6 is concerned with the work of Katherine C. Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers in developing a psychological instrument of great value to practitioners. Since the early 1970s, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) has been used by psychologists, educators, and other human service providers to describe selected types of personalities and cognitive style preferences. The unique history of the MBTI, with its roots in the work of Carl Gustav Jung, is blended into an understanding of one of today's most widely used measures of normal attitudes and behavior as they contribute to assessments of cognitive styles. Jung's work also contributed considerably to the broader philosophical foundations of cognitive style theory in general, and this is discussed in Chapter 1.
Leveling versus Sharpening as cognitive preferences is described in Chapter 7. This paradigm was first introduced in the 1950s and gained considerable attention through the 1980s along with a related construct called Scanning. Psychoanalytic foundations associated with these domains are also explored.
The final chapter offers conclusions from various perspectives concerning the current state of the art and the many ways in which cognitive style theory has expanded our views of the influence that experience can exert on educators, learners, and the learning environment. These conclusions are framed within the general context of the philosophy, theory, and practice of what has been identified by others as the field of critical theory.
Allport Gordon. ( 1937). Personality: A Psychological Interpretation. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Malamud Bernard. ( 1980). The Natural. Avon Books.
Messick Samuel. ( 1976). Individuality in Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.