Action Research and Organizational Development

By J. Barton Cunningham | Go to book overview

2
The Need for an Action Research

Most scientific pundits claim that research exists to further the cause of science, answering questions with reliable and unbiased information.

This scientific activity can consume enormous amounts of time. Like a sail boat, it is also expensive. This research is also detailed, meticulous, and demands sometimes boring tabulations and observations. Further, the technical skills using mathematics, statistics, and computer programs must be integrated and allied with a scientific attitude and attention to detail.

Traditions which assist the evaluation and prediction process a anchor scientific research. These traditions include establishing experimental controls, replication, and precise measurements, while also guarding against invalidity and unreliability. The goal is to discover new facts, verify old facts, and to analyze their sequences, causal explanations, and the natural laws governing the data gathered.

Traditional science has achieved modes of success in trying to explain and solve societal and organizational problems. There is much that can be measured in society, and traditional science has done very well in accomplishing this task. It has been particularly relevant in chemistry, physics, biology and other fields some call the "hard" sciences.

Apparently, recognition is growing of the difficulties involved in using this traditional scientific research paradigm for practical organizational development problems. That is, "there may be an inherent incompatibility between practical problem-solving and "scientific research," and maximizing one may minimize the other." 1 Scientific research practices are often accused of being unfortunate impediments to effective action. Paradoxically, the traditional scientists are becoming more and more sophisticated, while the research users are demanding material which is simple, clear, and timely. Thus, there have been several suggestions that research procedures should recognize the dynamic nature of organizational problems. 2

-7-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Action Research and Organizational Development
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 276

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.