President Nixon, Mrs. Nixon and the American party expressed their appreciation for the gracious hospitality shown them by the Government and people
of the People's Republic of China.
The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and not necessarily those of
the Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress.
1. This perspective relies heavily on my book, China Watch: Toward Sino-American
Reconciliation ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), 155 p. The basic
sources on U.S. policy during this time include, most notably, Henry Kissinger, The
White House Years ( Boston: Little, Brown, 1979), 1529 p. Several prominent specialists
have examined Chinese and U.S. motives from different perspectives. See, for example, Michel Oksenberg, "A Decade of Sino-American Relations," Foreign Affairs 61, no. 1
(Fall 1982); A. Doak Barnett, China and the Major Powers in East Asia ( Washington,
D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1977); Richard Solomon, "The China Factor in America's
Foreign Relations," in
Richard Solomon, ed., The China Factor ( Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1981). 2.
As seen from the discussion below, Chinese leaders reacted very differently in
this changed situation, setting the stage for one of the most serious power struggles in
the history of the PRC. For background, see notably
Thomas Gottlieb, Chinese Foreign
Policy Factionalism and the Origins of the Strategic Triangle ( Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation, 1977).
There is debate among scholars as to just how concerned Chinese officials were
about the Soviet threat. See, for instance, Richard Wich, Sino-Soviet Crisis Politics: A
Study of Political Change and Communication ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University
Press, 1980); Harold Rinton, China's Turbulent Quest: An Analysis of China's Foreign
Policy Since 1949 ( New York: Macmillan, 1972); the Gottlieb study cited in note 2; and
the Barnett book cited in note 1.
See appendix for the text of the communique, taken from U.S. Department of
State, Selected Documents No. 9, U.S. Policy Toward China July 14, 1971-January 15,
Among other places, this is discussed in my book, China Watch, pp. 63-82.
These senior military leaders, who wielded great power during the late 1960s,
were not seen again for ten years, until they appeared along with Mao's wife and other
members of the so-called gang of four in a series of trials designed to legitimize their
In this context, it appears more understandable that the first person to greet Dr. Kissinger on his arrival in Beijing in July 1971, and the leader at his side and responsible
for his safety throughout his first stay in China, was Zhou's most senior and important
associate in the People's Liberation Army, Marshall Ye Jianying. Ye's exact role in the
leadership struggle leading up to Lin's death remains to be fully disclosed. But the rise
in his stature following Lin Biao's demise and his identification with Zhou during the
period of intense struggle with Lin Biao are matters of record.
See, for instance,
James Reardon-Anderson, Yenan and the Great Powers: The
Origins of Chinese Communist Foreign Policy, 1944-1946 ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1980).
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Cold War Patriot and Statesman, Richard M. Nixon.
Contributors: Leon Friedman - Editor, William F. Levantrosser - Editor.
Publisher: Greenwood Press.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1993.
Page number: 38.
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