It is further said, that no danger is to be apprehended from the exercise of this power, because it is lodged in the hands of representatives of the people. If they abuse it, it is in the power of the people to remove them, and choose others who will pursue their interests. . . . That it is unwise in any people, to authorize their rulers to do, what, if done, would prove injurious--I have, in some former numbers, shown. . . . The representation in the proposed government will be a mere shadow without the substance. I am so confident that I am well founded in this opinion, that I am persuaded if it was to be adopted or rejected, upon a fair discussion of its merits without taking into contemplation circumstances extraneous to it, as reasons for its adoption, nineteen-twentieths of the sensible men in the union would reject it on this account alone; unless its powers were confined to much fewer objects than it embraces.


Antifederalist No. 26

The founding fathers seemed to be faced with an insurmountable problem: how to give to the new federal government the power of enforcing the law, when states were jealous of their sovereign authority and would presumably reject the proposed Constitution if that document contained any provision for federal coercion.

The answer was to by-pass the states in this respect, by creating a superior sovereignty, operating directly on and for the people, and submitting the Constitution to the people for ratification.

This brilliant solution did not escape the attention of the Antifederalists. As the following three essays attest, opponents of the Constitution were very much concerned about the use of force by the central government. The following was written by "A FARMER AND PLANTER" and appeared in The Maryland Journal, and Baltimore Advertiser, April 1, 1788. The remainder of this essay is contained in Antifederalist No. 40, and several sentences are quoted in Philip A. Crowl, Maryland During and After the Revolution ( Baltimore, 1943), pp. 132-33.

The time is nearly at hand, when you are called upon to render up that glorious liberty you obtained, by resisting the tyranny and oppression of George the Third, King of England, and his ministers. The first Monday in April is the day appointed by our assembly, for you to meet and choose delegates in each county, to take into consideration the new Federal Government, and either adopt or refuse it. Let me entreat you, my fellows, to consider well what you are about. Read the said constitution, and consider it well before you act. I have done so, and can find that we are to receive but little good, and a great deal of evil. Aristocracy, or government in the hands of a very few nobles, or RICH MEN, is therein concealed in the most artful wrote plan that ever was formed to entrap a free people. The contrivers of it


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