other of the pieces, which appear to be wrote by some other little authors, and by people of little consequence, though they seem to think themselves men of importance, and take upon them grand names such as . . . Caesar,2 . . . Now Mr. Caesar do[es] not depend so much on reasoning as upon bullying. He abuses the people very much, and if he spoke in our neighborhood as impudently as he writes in the newspapers, I question whether he would come off with whole bones. From the manner he talks of the people, he certainly cannot be one of them himself. I imagine he has lately come over from some old country, where they are all Lords and no common people. If so, it would be as well for him to go back again as to meddle himself with our business, since he holds such a bad opinion of us.

A COUNTRYMAN

The Federalist, as he terms himself, or Publius, puts one in mind of some of the gentlemen of the long robe, when hard pushed, in a bad cause, with a rich client. They frequently say a great deal which does not apply; but yet, if it will not convince the judge nor jury, may, perhaps, help to make them forget some part of the evidence, embarrass their opponent, and make the audience stare, besides increasing the practice.

A COUNTRYMAN


Antifederalist No. 39
APPEARANCE AND REALITY--THE FORM IS FEDERAL; THE EFFECT IS NATIONAL

Both Merrill Jensen ( The New Nation, New York, 1950, pp. xiii-xiv) and Jackson T. Main ( The Antifederalists, pp. xi-xiii) quite properly point out that the Antifederalists were really federalists, and opposed the Constitution because it was in effect antifederalistic. Many contemporary writers against the Constitution disliked the appellation Antifederalist as inappropriate and misleading. Time and again, as the following essay exemplifies, the Antifederalists argued that a consolidated national government--the very opposite of a true federal system--must inevitably result from the Constitution.

The following paper is excerpted from essays by "A FARMER" which appeared in the [Philadelphia] Independent Gazetteer, April 15 and 22, 1788, and are reprinted in McMaster and Stone, pp. 531-46.

. . . . The Freeman1 [a pro-Constitution writer] in his second number, after mentioning in a very delusory manner diverse powers which remain with the states, says we shall find many other instances under the constitution which require or imply the existence or continuance of the sovereignty and severalty of the states. He, as well as all the advocates of the new

____________________
1
Probably Tench Coxe.
2
See Jacob E. Cooke, "Alexander Hamilton's Authorship of the 'Caesar' Letters," The William and Mary Quarterly ( January, 1960) XVII, 78-85.

-104-

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