Games Advisors Play: Foreign Policy in the Nixon and Carter Administrations

By Jean A. Garrison | Go to book overview
Save to active project

Machiavelli's Warning

In The Prince, Niccolò Machiavelli describes a mutually dependent relationship between the minister and the prince, in which the success of a leader cannot be separated from the characters of those who surround him. He notes that if ministers "are competent and faithful one can always consider [the prince] wise . . . But when they are the reverse, one can always form an unfavourable opinion of him, because the first mistake that he makes is in making this choice." Machiavelli goes on to warn the prince that he should beware of the minister who thinks "more of himself than of you, and in all his actions seeks his own profit." Essentially, he is warning the prince to be careful of advisors who would be motivated to act, and would be capable of acting, independently of him to pursue their own goals.

While close relationships between presidents and their advisors (for example, that between Woodrow Wilson and Colonel House) have been described at length, the manner in which American foreign policy advisors systematically influence both the advisory process around the president and the definition of policy options remains relatively unexplored. Instead, most studies of the presidency and most analyses of foreign policy focus on the formal/structural and organizational arrangements, the small-group relations, and the individual characteristics of the president (such as personality) that shape the advisory process. Even studies in the bureaucratic-politics tradition, which discuss the "pulling and hauling" among contending bureaucratic factions, fail to illustrate exactly how and why individuals shape the advisory process.1 Therefore this study supplements current understandings of the advisory process with insights gleaned from a broader, experimentally validated literature in social psychology and the management sciences. Much of this work has yet to be applied to the political setting.

This book illustrates how an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the presidency and United States foreign policy helps to explain the advisory process around the president. My concern is with the unique contribution advisors make within the dynamic advisory process. The chapters that follow depict instances of foreign-policy decision making, focusing on policy toward the


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Games Advisors Play: Foreign Policy in the Nixon and Carter Administrations


Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 198

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?