European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies to 1648

By Frances Gardiner Davenport | Go to book overview

11.
The Bull Ea Quae (Julius II.). January 24, 1506.

INTRODUCTION.

In 1498 Vasco da Gama reached Calicut by way of the Cape of Good Hope. Two years later, Pedro Alvarez Cabral, hastening to India in command of a Portuguese fleet to follow up Gama's successes, landed, near 16° south, upon the coast of Brazil, of which, nearly three months previously, Pinzon, and, shortly after, Diego de Lepe, had taken formal possession for Castile. The fact that this portion of South America extended beyond the east or Portuguese side of the line of demarcation further complicated the relations of the two countries, whose rivalry now became intense. Expeditions in which Vespucius, detached for a time from Spanish service, sailed under a Portuguese captain ( 1501-1502, 1503-1504), acquainted the Portuguese with the vast extent of the Brazilian coast, and far to the north, in 1500 and 1501, Gaspare Corte-Real visited lands which the Portuguese located on their side of the line.1 The line, therefore, now had a new value for the Portuguese and it was probably this fact that induced King Emmanuel to ask Pope Julius II. to confirm the treaty of Tordesillas that had established it.2

Julius II. was well disposed toward King Emmanuel, who was so zealously laboring for the extension of the faith in Morocco, in Guinea, and notably in India, where the foundations of a colonial empire were beginning to be laid. In the early summer of 1505, a Portuguese embassy of obedience reached Rome, and before its return to Portugal in the following October, had obtained from the pontiff a number of important concessions.3 In the following spring, the pope bestowed upon the king the consecrated golden rose.4 A few months after the return of the embassy and before the bestowal

____________________
1
As in the Cantino map, compiled from Portuguese data in 1502. This map, which shows the line of demarcation passing west of the land discovered by Corte-Real, is photographically reproduced in the size of the original in E. L. Stevenson, Maps illustrating Early Discovery and Exploration in America ( 1903). Parts of it are reproduced in H. Harrisse, Les Corte-Real ( 1883), portfolio, and in id., Discovery of North America ( 1892), opp. pp. 79 and 111.
2
F. A. de Varnhagen, Historia Geral do Brazil ( 1854- 1857), I. 28.
3
For a detailed account of this embassy, see the Marquis MacSwiney de Mashanaglass, Le Portugal et le Saint-Siège, III. 22-29, and by the same author, "Une Ambassade Portugaise à Rome sous Jules II.", in the Revue d'Histoire Diplomatique, 1903, pp. 50-65, and separately printed by Plon Paris, 1903.
4
An interesting account of the golden roses sent by the popes to the kings of Portugal in the sixteenth century is given in the former of the volumes cited in the preceding note. For the gift of the golden rose to Alfonso V., see Doc. 1, note 26.

-107-

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