Truce between France and Spain, concluded at Vaucelles, February 5, 1516; separate article relating to the Indies and Savoy.
The war begun in 1552 between the Emperor Charles V. and Henry II. of France involved several other European powers and also spread to America. The corsairs of Guipúzcoa did much damage to the French fisheries of Newfoundland, Spanish troops were landed on the island, and many ships were captured in the ports and neighboring seas.1 In Porto Rico and Cuba the French committed depredations; in 1555, Havana was taken and pillaged by the French Protestant, Jacques de Sores.2
Through the marriage of his son Philip with Queen Mary, Charles V. hoped to gain England as an ally against France, but the English would not be drawn into a Spanish quarrel. Their interest lay in bringing about a cessation of hostilities and Queen Mary undertook the rôle of mediator. The Pope also desired peace and appointed Cardinal Pole to negotiate it; but Pole had little success.3 Towards the close of 1555, however, conditions were favorable to a truce. Charles V. had already begun abdicating his various dignities, and wished to transfer to his son a realm at peace. He was also alarmed by the alliance between the King of France and the newly-elected pope, Paul IV. Henry II., on the other hand, feared lest his union with the Pope might drive England into an alliance with Spain. Moreover, both realms were impoverished.4 Near the end of the year the French commissioners, Admiral Coligny and Séebastien de l'Aubespine, and the Imperial commissioners, Charles de Lalaing and Simon Renard, who were already conferring at the abbey of Vaucelles, near Cambray, were empowered to____________________