European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies to 1648

By Frances Gardiner Davenport | Go to book overview

21.*
*Treaty between France and Spain, concluded at Cateau- Cambrésis, April 3, 1559. Oral agreement concerning the Indies.

INTRODUCTION.

The truce of Vaucelles was soon broken. Within a year, Henry II. renewed the papal alliance and began hostilities against Spain. In the ensuing war both sides won notable victories, which offset each other. In October, 1558, after preliminary conferences, the kings empowered plenipotentiaries to negotiate the peace, which both monarchs ardently desired.1 Philip's resources were nearly exhausted. Henry hoped that the return of the Constable Montmorency, who had been held as prisoner, would check the growing power of the Guises. Both sovereigns wished to begin a domestic campaign against Protestantism.2 In a castle of the Bishop of Cambray, a treaty between France and Spain was signed on April 3, 1559. A treaty between France and England, the ally of Spain, was signed on the day preceding.3

The treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis, supplemented in 1598 by the treaty of Vervins, was "the fundamental charter of Europe up to the treaty of Westphalia". Contemporaries considered it disgraceful to France, which surrendered two hundred towns to Savoy and Spain, and abandoned her pretensions to Italy. Among other things the treaty stipulated the marriage of Philip II. and the daughter of the King of France.

In the course of the negotiations the right of the French to go to the Spanish Indies was discussed repeatedly and at length.4

____________________
1
The powers are printed in Traicté de Paix fait à Chasteau-Cambresis ( 1637), pp. 160-165. The French plenipotentiaries were: the Cardinal of Lorraine, the Constable Montmorency, the Marshal Saint-André, Jean de Morvilliers, bishop of Orleans, Claude de l'Aubespine, secretary of state, and later, his brother, Sébastien de l'Aubespine, bishop of Limoges. Spain was represented by the Duke of Alva, William, prince of Orange, Ruy Gomez de Silva, count of Melito, Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, bishop of Arras, and President Viglius. Bishop Thirlby, the Earl of Arundel, and Nicholas Wotton represented England. The Duke of Savoy and the King of Navarre also sent plenipotentiaries. From the middle of October, 1558, till nearly the end of the following January, negotiations were conducted at Cercamp; afterwards, at Cateau-Cambrésis.
2
For the causes that made Philip desire peace, see L. P. Gachard, Relations des Ambassadeurs Vénitiens sur Charles-Quint et Philippe II. ( 1855), pp. 314, 315.
3
The text of the French-Spanish treaty is in F. Leonard, Recueil des Traitez ( 1693), II. 535 ff.; and J. Dumont, Corps Diplomatique ( 1726- 1731), tom. V., pt. I., pp. 34 ff.; the text of the French-English treaty is in P. Forbes, Full View of Public Transactions in the Reign of Q. Elizabeth ( 1740- 1741). I. 68-81.
4
Papiers d'État du Cardinal de Granvelle, V. 285, 286, 546, 564; Négociations relatives au Règne de François II., p. 279; Archives of Simancas, Secretaría de Estado, leg. 518, f. 88.

-219-

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