European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies to 1648

By Frances Gardiner Davenport | Go to book overview

22.
Treaty between the King of Spain and the Catholic Princes of France, concluded at Joinville on January 16, 1585.

INTRODUCTION.

On June 10, 1584, the Duke of Anjou, brother of Henry III., died, and Henry of Navarre, chief of the Huguenot party, became heir to the French crown. In anticipation of this event, the Duke of Guise, who secretly aspired to the throne, his brother, the duke of Mayenne, and other Catholic nobles, had already proclaimed the old and simple Cardinal of Bourbon as heir presumptive, and revived the Holy League of 1576 to oppose the succession of the King of Navarre. The Duke of Guise had long been in the pay of Philip II. That monarch was now at odds with the ruling family of France because of their dealings with his rebellious subjects in the Netherlands and their befriending of Dom Antonio, prior of Crato, a claimant of the crown of Portugal, which Philip had recently annexed to Spain. Thus a common hostility to the Valois and Protestants brought Philip and the Guises into alliance. Negotiations already begun through the Spanish agents, Juan Moreo and Juan Bautista de Tassis, were continued from the last days of December, 1584, to January 16, 1585, at the château of the Duke of Guise at Joinville on the Marne. On the latter date, a treaty of offensive and defensive alliance was signed by Tassis and Moreo on behalf of Philip II., by the Sieur de Mainville on behalf of the Cardinal of Bourbon, and by the dukes of Guise and Mayenne in their own names and those of their brother, the Cardinal of Guise, and their cousins, the dukes of Aumale and Elboeuf. The treaty was ratified by Philip,2 and renewed at Rheims by the Duke of Guise on September 2, 1585.3 Its chief provisions were as follows: the Cardinal of Bourbon should be declared presumptive heir to the throne of France, from which all heretical princes or countenancers of heresy should be excluded, and, if necessary, opposed with arms; the Cardinal of Bourbon should, on his accession, confirm the treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis;4 in France, only Catholic forms of worship should be permitted, no places should be left in

____________________
1
The main text of the treaty is dated Dec. 31, 1584; one of the separate articles, Jan. 1, 1585; the other, Jan. 16, 1585. J. B. de Tassis, one of the negotiators, states with regard to the treaty: "confectum est foedus decima sexta die Januarii, octuagesimi quinti, etiamsi instrumentum Calendis ipsis asserat confectum." Commentariorum Libri Octo, p. 446.
2
Ibid., p. 461; Rübsam, Johann Baptista von Taxis, pp. 75, 76.
3
See below, p. 225.
4
Cf. Doc. 21.

-223-

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