The CLASS STRUGGLE THEORY
The theory stated: The class struggle theory is a part of the economic interpretation of history. Ever since the dissolution of primitive tribal society, the modes of economic production and exchange have inevitably grouped men into economic classes. In his Introduction to the Communist Manifesto Frederick Engels thus summarizes the theory:
"In every historical epoch, the prevailing mode of economic production and exchange, and the social organization necessarily following from it, form the basis upon which is built up, and from which alone can be explained, the political and intellectual history of that epoch; and, consequently the whole history of mankind (since the dissolution of primitive society, holding land in common ownership) has been a history of class struggles, contests between exploiting and exploited, ruling and oppressed classes; that the history of these class struggles forms a series of evolution in which, nowadays, a stage has been reached where the exploited and oppressed class--the proletariat--cannot attain its emancipation from the sway of the exploiting and ruling class--the bourgeoisie--without at the same time, and once and for all, emancipating society at large from all exploitation, oppression, class distinctions, and class struggles."
Analysis of the statement: In this statement there are several important propositions. First, that class divisions and class struggles arise out of the economic life of society. Second, that since the dissolution of primitive society, which was based upon communism, mankind has been divided into economic classes, and that all its history has been a history of struggles between these classes, ruling and ruled forever warring against each other. Third, it is implied rather than stated that the different epochs in human
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Publication information: Book title: Elements of Socialism:A Text-Book. Contributors: John Spargo - Author, George Louis Arner - Author. Publisher: Macmillan. Place of publication: New York. Publication year: 1912. Page number: 100.