Technology and Industrial Development in Japan: Building Capabilities by Learning, Innovation, and Public Policy

By Hiroyuki Odagiri; Akira Goto | Go to book overview

Notes

NOTES TO CHAPTER 1
1.
The first use of the word 'entrepreneur' is attributed to Cantillon ( 1755) whose English original is believed to have been destroyed in a fire that killed him; thus, only the French translation was left in which the French word 'entrepreneur' was used. Although he seems to have regarded the prime function of entrepreneurs as that of undertakers who profits by taking advantages of price differentials between markets or between producers and consumers, he also indicated that '[Inhabitants of a State] can be divided into two classes, Undertakers and Hired people; and that all the Undertakers are as it were on unfixed wages and the others on wages fixed so long as they receive them though their functions and ranks may be very unequal' ( Cantillon, 1755; Higgs' English translation, p. 55) where, needless to say, the word 'undertakers' is the English translation of 'entrepreneurs'. This statement is surprisingly similar to Knight's distinction between entrepreneurs and labourers: 'the entrepreneurs also guarantee to those who furnish productive services a fixed remuneration' (Knight, 1921: 271), which led him to his distinction between wages, which are contractual, and profits, which are residual.
2.
That the Japanese made rice-polishing machines while the West made mills reflects the difference in eating habit. Some authors suggest that this difference caused the Japanese to be good at machines having reciprocating motion but behind the West with those having rotary motion.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 2
1.
The readers are advised to see, for instance, Reischauer ( 1974) for the exposition of the general Japanese history in English.
2.
For the discussion of the start of the telegraph and telephone services, see Chapter 8.
3.
For details on Kogakuryo, see Miyoshi ( 1979).
4.
However, at least one college in Britain had a similar programme. It was Marshall who introduced this programme--he was aware of Dyer's achievement: 'A good plan is that of spending the six winter months of several years after leaving school in learning science in College, and the six summer months as articled pupils in large workshops. The present writer introduced this plan several years ago at University College, Bristol. It has also been adopted in Japan' ( Marshall, 1898: 290).
5.
The list of these laboratories is translated into English by Fukasaku ( 1992: 88-9).

-270-

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