continental cooperation? Can an effective new balance of power be created with a United States that remains a superpower but seems willing to cede some if not all of its perquisites as such and with a Russia no longer a superpower but resentful of any implication of such a change of status? Will frictions between Russia and the West be intensified by a possible Russian shift to more authoritarian leadership and create once again a "hard" rather than a "soft" division between East and West? Europeans are proud of their diversities; can these be maintained even as the several nations find a common voice on economic and international affairs?
All these are questions of modernization, of how societies and their networks of solutions adapt to changes brought by technological and social developments. Great change has occurred in Europe over a half century. As the Charter of Paris proclaimed and subsequent events have demonstrated, the forces that brought change came from the peoples of Europe. We must therefore now turn our attention to an examination of the painful revitalization and modemization of each of the major nations of Europe that evolved following the devastation brought by World War II, for it was in the history of these individual peoples and their nations' leaders that the potential for the rebirth of Europe was ultimately realized.
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