Rebirth: A Political History of Europe since World War II

By Cyril E. Black; Robert D. English et al. | Go to book overview

the church, considerable money and effort were directed toward compensation of victims and eradication of the problems.

In 1998 John Paul II moved to curb liberal academics within the church. In an apostolic letter, he advised that the church's profession of faith, as reformulated in 1989, was binding in terms of canon law. The sweep of his meaning was made clear by a doctrinal commentary simultaneously released by the conservative Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith. By widening the definition of what was considered infallibly taught doctrine, Vatican officials gained the force of canon law in disciplining dissenters. Within a few weeks the pope further acted to tighten control of the 108 national bishops' organizations, ruling that they could not make binding statements on doctrinal or public policy issues that differed from the position of the Holy See. Moreover, the conferences could issue binding statements to their regions only if these were unanimously supported (an unlikely case). Otherwise, such statements had first to be approved in the Vatican.

With his health failing, Pope John Paul II took steps to assure that his views regarding the church and its teachings would be upheld after his departure. Critics suggested that his choices of bishops and cardinals, though far more ecumenical than in previous eras, nevertheless focused on individuals of his own persuasion, thus stultifying doctrinal debate. Whatever the case, by February 1998, Pope John Paul II had appointed 106 of the 122 cardinals eligible to vote for his successor. His influence on the church and on the world would not easily be forgotten. And if some Catholics still protested that the papacy was moving too slowly on internal church matters, there was no denying that the Holy See was a major participant in the creation of a new Europe.


Notes
1
P. Togliatti, "La nostra lotta per la democrazia e il socialismo", in Il Partito ( 1973), p. 56, as quoted by D. Sassoon, Contemporary Italy: Politics, Economy and Society Since 1945 ( 1986), p. 233.
2
This term and parts of the present analysis are based on Michael Roskin, Other Governments of Europe: Sweden, Spain, Italy, Yugoslavia, and East Germany ( 1977).
3
Quoted in Luigi Barzini, The Europeans ( 1984), pp. 191-192 and passim.
4
This quotation is from chapter 3 ( "On the Hierarchical Structure of the Church and in Particular the Episcopate") of the constitution. It appeared in

-512-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Rebirth: A Political History of Europe since World War II
Table of contents
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 702

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.