How can we not detect in this formulation the fact that Marx failed to cope with the paradoxes of surplus-enjoyment? And the ironic vengeance of history for this failure is that today there exists a society which seems to correspond perfectly to this vulgar evolutionary dialectics of forces and relation: 'real socialism', a society which legitimizes itself by reference to Marx. Is it not already a commonplace to assert that 'real socialism' has rendered possible rapid industrialization, but that as soon as the productive forces have reached a certain level of development (usually designated by the vague term 'post- industrial society'), 'real socialist' social relationships began to constrict their further growth?

Hans-Jürgen Eysenck, Sense and Nonsense in Psychology, Harmondsworth 1966.
Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of dreams, Harmondsworth 1977, p. 757.
Karl Marx, Capital, vol. 1, London 1974, p. 80.
Alfred Sohn-Rethel, Intellectual and Manual Labor, London 1978, p. 31.
Jacques Lacan, "'R.S.I.'", Ornicar? 4, Paris 1975, p. 106.
Marx, Capital, p. 77.
G. W. F. Hegel, Phenomenology of Spirit, Oxford 1977.
Peter Sloterdijk, Kritik der zynischen Vernunft, Frankfurt 1983; translated as Critique of Cynical Reason, London 1988.
Marx, Capital, p. 132.
Blaise Pascal, Pensées, Harmondsworth 1966, p. 271.
Franz Kafka, The Trial, Harmondsworth 1985, p. 243.
Pascal, Pensées, pp. 152-3.
Louis Althusser, "'Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses'", see this volume, ch. 5.
Freud, The Interpretation of dreams, p. 652.
Lacan, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis, Harmondsworth 1979, chs 5, 6.


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