Realignment and Party Revival: Understanding American Electoral Politics at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century

By Arthur Paulson | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
Rhodes Cook, "Dole's Job: To Convince His Own Party," Congressional Quarterly Guide to the 1996 Republican National Convention, August 3, 1996, pp. 7-11.
2.
See Walter Dean Burnham, Critical Elections and the Mainsprings of American Politics ( New York: Norton, 1970).
3.
Most of the data on Presidential elections is drawn from Presidential Elections, 1789-1996 ( Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997).
4.
J. Clark Archer, Fred M. Shelly, Peter J. Taylor, and Ellen R. White, "The Geography of U.S. Presidential Elections," Scientific American 259 ( 1988): 44-51; Burnham, Critical Elections; Daniel J. Elazar, American Federalism: A View from the States ( New York: Harper and Row, 1984); Richard Jensen, "Party Coalitions and the Search for Modern Values," in Seymour Martin Lipset, ed., Emerging Coalitions in American Politics ( San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies, 1978); Everett Carll Ladd with Charles D. Hadley, Transformations of the American Party System ( New York: Norton, 1975), particularly pp. 129-177; George Rabinowitz and Stuart Elaine MacDonald , "The Power of the States in U.S. Presidential Elections," The American Political Science Review 80 ( 1986): 65-87; Harvey L. Schantz, "Sectionalism in Presidential Elections," in Schantz, ed., American Presidential Elections: Process, Policy, and Political Change ( Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), pp. 9-50. William Schneider, "Democrats and Republicans, Liberals and Conservatives," in Seymour Martin Lipset, ed., Emerging Coalitions in American Politics ( San Franciso: Institute for Contemporary Studies, 1978); James L. Sundquist, The Dynamics of the American Party System: Alignment and Realignment of Political Parties in the United States ( Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1983).
5.
See particularly Burnham, Critical Elections and "Into the 1980s with Ronald Reagan"; Jensen; Schneider; and Sundquist, Dynamics. Obviously, the distinction between economic and cultural issues is somewhat arbitrary and artificial. Most, if not all issues, have both economic and cultural dimensions. The distinction has more to do with how issues are presented and debated by political elites, opinion leaders, activists, and candidates; how the agenda is set; and the electoral coalitions that emerge.
6.
Louis H. Bean, How to Predict Elections ( New York: Knopf, 1948). In this work, actually prepared about a year before the Presidential election, Bean stands almost alone in predicting that President Truman would be elected in 1948. As his data is drawn from Presidential elections between 1896 and 1944, the relative position of the states in Presidential election coalitions is undisturbed by the 1964- 1972 realignment. His data, in fact, is drawn entirely from the relatively stable partisan alignment of states that persisted until a secular realignment began around 1948, as discussed in the introduction of the current work.
7.
Jerome M. Clubb, William H. Flanigan, and Nancy H. Zingale, Partisan Realignment: Voters, Parties and Government in American History ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1990), pp. 77-118.
8.
See Robert W. Cherry, A Righteous Cause: The Life of William Jennings Bryan ( Boston: Little, Brown, 1985), pp. 113-188. A more detailed discussion of Bryan as the leader of the Democratic Party appears in Chapter 2.
9.
Interesting, and usually overlooked, is the fact that Grover Cleveland is also the only candidate other than Franklin D. Roosevelt to win the popular vote in more than two Presidential elections.

-41-

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