Realignment and Party Revival: Understanding American Electoral Politics at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century

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Table 8.13
The Base of the New Deal Democratic Coalition in Presidential Elections, 1968-1996
Election National Southern Non-South National
Democratic Vote Whites White Working Blacks
Class
1968 43 28 (-15) 43 (0) 70 (+27)
1972 38 25 (-13) 37(-1) 77 (+39)
1976 50 51 (+1) 49 (-1) 72 (+22)
1980 41 40 (-1) 41 (0) 72 (+31)
1984 41 33 (-8) 42 (+1) 69 (+28)
1988 46 35 (-11) 47 (+1) 70 (+24)
1992 43 36 (-7) 41 (-2) 71 (+28)
1996 50 41 (-9) 46 (-4) 76 (+26)

Figures represent mean Democratic vote for President at the Congressional-district level. "White" Congressional districts have populations at least 85 percent white. Southern districts are from the eleven states of the Confederacy. Black districts have black populations larger than the Anglo-Saxon white population. Working-class districts are those found in the fourth quintile on the income index.

Electoral data drawn from The Almanac of American Politics. Economic and demographic data derived from Congressional Quarterly.


NOTES
1.
See the Introduction for an initial discussion of the relationship between class consciousness and the party system, and for citations on the low level of class consciousness found in the American political culture.
2.
See, for example, Everett Carll Ladd, "Liberalism Upside Down: The Inversion of the New Deal Order," in William Crotty, ed., The Party Symbol: Readings on Political Parties ( San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1980). See also Everett Carll Ladd , with Charles Hadley, Transformations of the American Party System: Political Coalitions from the New Deal to the 1970s ( New York: Norton, 1975), and Everett Carll Ladd , "Like Waiting for Godot: The Uselessness of 'Realignment' for Understanding Change in Contemporary American Politics," in Byron E. Shafer, ed., The End of Realignment? Interpreting American Electoral Eras ( Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991), pp. 24-36.
3.
See Ladd, "Like Waiting for Godot and Ladd, Political Parties and Presidential Elections in the Postindustrial Era," in Harvey L. Schantz, American Presidential Elections: Process, Policy, and Political Change ( Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), pp. 189-210.
4.
Ladd, with Charles D. Hadley, p. 182.

-269-

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