The Scalawag in Alabama Politics, 1865-1881

By Sarah Woolfolk Wiggins | Go to book overview
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Thomas McAdory Owen, History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography ( 4 vols., Chicago, 1921); Willis Brewer, Alabama: Her History, Resources, War Record, and Public Men from 1540 to 1872 ( Montgomery, 1872), 368; William Garrett, Reminiscences of Public Men in Alabama for Thirty Years ( Atlanta, 1872).
Montgomery Daily Advertiser, August 7, 1868.
For discussion of origin of the term scalawag see Sarah Woolfolk Wiggins, "What Is A Scalawag?" Alabama Review, XXV ( January, 1972), 56-61.
United States Senate Reports, No. 22, "Alabama Testimony in Ku Klux Report," 42nd Cong., 2nd Sess., vol. IX, 888, hereafter cited as Alabama Testimony.
For summaries of scholarly trends in the writings on Reconstruction see Richard O. Curry, "The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861-1877: A Critical Overview of Recent Trends and Interpretations," Civil War History, XX ( September, 1974), 215-38; Bernard A. Weisberger, "The Dark and Bloody Ground of Reconstruction Historiography," Journal of Southern History, XXV ( November, 1959), 427-47; Robert Reid, "Changing Interpretations of the Reconstruction Period in Alabama, " Alabama Review, XXVII ( October, 1974), 263-81. Carl N. Degler, The Other South: Southern Dissenters in the Nineteenth Century ( New York, 1974), devotes more attention to the scalawag than have historians of Reconstruction; Chapters V and VI summarize much of what has appeared in state historical journals and in unpublished dissertations about the scalawag. Kenneth M. Stampp, The Era of Reconstruction, 1865-1877 ( New York, 1965), 156-65, has the fullest discussion of the scalawag in any revisionist survey of Reconstruction. Other recent surveys which touch briefly on the scalawag are Allen W. Trelease, Reconstruction: The Great Experiment ( New York, 1971), 107-08; John Hope Franklin, Reconstruction: After the Civil War ( Chicago, 1961), 98-103; William R. Brock, Conflict and Transformation: The United States, 1844-1877 ( Middlesex, England, 1973), 375-76. Biographies of individual scalawags include Lillian A. Pereyra, James Lusk Alcorn, Persistent Whig ( Baton Rouge, 1966); Donald Bridgman Sanger, James Longstreet: Soldier, Politician, Officeholder, and Writer ( Gloucester, Mass., 1968); Lillian Adele Kibler , Benjamin F. Perry, South Carolina Unionist ( Durham, N.C., 1946); E. Merton Coulter, William G. Brownlow, Fighting Parson of the Southern Highlands (Chapel Hill, 1937).
David Donald, "The Scalawag in Mississippi Reconstruction," Journal of Southern History, X ( November, 1944), 447-60; Allen W. Trelease, "Who Were the Scalawags?" Journal of Southern History, XXIX ( November, 1963),


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