I would like to thank the workers and labor organizers who educated me about
the cannery workers' movement, and I regret that they must remain anonymous. Felipe Gonzales made many useful comments on successive drafts of this article. Bill Friedland, Lupe Friaz, and Jaime Gallardo also made helpful comments on
this chapter. Ann Bookman and Sandra Morgen deserve special acknowledgments for their patience and enthusiastic support, as well as their helpful suggestions for revisions.
See Ruth Milkman, ed., Women, Work and Protest: A Century of U. S. Women's
Labor History( Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985); Karen Brodkin Sacks and
Doro thy Remy
, eds., My Troubles Are Going to Have Trouble with Me: Everyday Trials and
Triumphs of Women Workers ( New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1984); Alice Kessler-Harris, Out to Work, A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United
States( Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982).
For literature that discusses the simultaneous experience of class, race, and gender for women of color in theoretical terms, see Angela Davis, Women, Race and Class
( New York: Random House, 1981); Amy Swerdlow and
Hanna Lessinger, eds., Class,
Race, and Sex: The Dynamics of Control( Boston: G. K. Hall, 1983); Evelyn Nakano Glenn
, "Racial Ethnic Women's Labor: The Intersection of Race, Gender and Class
Oppression", Review of Radical Political Economics 17( 1985): 86-108; Gloria Joseph, "The Incomplete Menage à Trois: Marxism, Feminism, and Racism", in
ed., Women and Revolution, A Discussion of the Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and
Feminism( Boston: South End Press, 1981), 109-143; and bell hooks, Feminist Theory:
From Margin to Center ( Boston: South End Press, 1983).
"Chicana/o" refers here to persons of Mexican heritage who were born or
reared in the United States; "Mexicans" or "Mexicanos" refers to those who migrated as
adults to the United States from Mexico. The terms that my informants used to identify
themselves varied, depending on the context, and sometimes different terms were used
interchangeably. For a discussion of the context and complexity of Mexican-American
ethnic identification, see J. García, "Yo Soy Mexicano . . . : Self-Identity and Sociodemographic Correlates", Social Science Quarterly 62, No. 1 ( 1981): 88-98; J. E. Limon
, "The Folk Performance of Chicano and the Cultural Limits of Political Ideology", in
Richard Bauman and
Roger D. Abrahams, eds., "And Other Neighborly
Names": Social Process and Cultural Image in Texas Folklore ( Austin: University of
Texas Press, 1981), 197-225; P. Gonzales, "Spanish Heritage and Ethnic Protest in New
Mexico: The Anti-Fraternity Bill of 1933", New Mexico Historical Review 61, No. 4
( October 1986): 281-299; M. Miller, "Mexican Americans, Chicanos, and Others: Ethnic Self-Identification and Selected Social Attributes of Rural Texas Youth", Rural Sociology 4, No. 2 ( 1976): 234-247.
Cannery workers were represented by the California State Council of Cannery
and Food Processing Unions, International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen, and Helpers.
Rayna Rapp analyzes the facets and pervasiveness of family ideology in American culture. See "Family and Class in Contemporary America: Notes Toward an Understanding of Ideology,"
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Women and the Politics of Empowerment.
Contributors: Ann Bookman - Editor, Sandra Morgen - Editor.
Publisher: Temple University Press.
Place of publication: Philadelphia.
Publication year: 1988.
Page number: 221.
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