Women and the Politics of Empowerment

By Ann Bookman; Sandra Morgen | Go to book overview

The ideology that sexual harassment is a personal problem is strong, and its strength is reinforced by a government policy that removes women from the streets. City officials did not appear to be interested in discriminating against women vendors. The intended purpose of the new regulations was to curtail the dirt, congestion, and competition created by all vendors. By assuming that the regulations were gender neutral without exploring the alternate possibility, city officials increased women vendors' dependence on men and increased male domination of the streets. By increasing male domination of public and economic life, city policy reinforced public patriarchy. 35

Despite their intensifying struggle for economic and political autonomy, many women, including most of the vendors we interviewed, accept male domination of city streets as natural. As a result, they frequently fail to organize as a conscious constituency. Women are less likely than men to use streets, parks, and other public places, thus themselves contributing to public patriarchy or male domination of public life. 36 Campaigns for a "hassle-free zone" conducted by the local rape crisis center to raise consciousness about street harassment as a public issue are an important antidote. 37 Likewise the presence of women vendors on the streets is another antidote. As a young flower vendor stated, "The more women become vendors, the more people will accept them, the less people will think it's freaky and try and keep them vulnerable."


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank George Washington University's Center for Washington Area Studies and especially Professors Howard Gillette and Jeffrey Henig for all their efforts in making this study possible. In addition, I would like to thank Jennie McKnight for her patient and skillful editing; Mindy Shapiro for her assistance in coding and interviewing; Micaela di Leonardaro, Phyllis Palmer, Karen Sacks, Tara Wallace, and John Willoughby for their helpful reading of earlier drafts; and Ann Bookman and Sandra Morgen for their many editorial and content suggestions. Finally, I would like to thank Eileen Zeitz for her work on earlier versions of this study and Hank Leland for his final editing.


NOTES
1.
The distinction between vendors in the informal and tertiary sectors depends on whether or not they are counted as workers in government censuses. Informal-sector workers are not counted.
2.
For a description of these problems in Lima, Peru, see Ximena Bunster and Elsa M. Chaney , Sellers and Servants: Working Women in Lima, Peru ( New York: Praeger, 1985).
3.
For a description of (and rating system for) a variety of government policies in Southeast Asia on street vending, including antivending policies that discourage vendors

-291-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Women and the Politics of Empowerment
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 324

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.