The G Factor: The Science of Mental Ability

By Arthur R. Jensen | Go to book overview
Figure 3.5. The same test vectors as in Figures 3.3. and 3.4, but here the factor axes (Factor I" and II") are no longer orthogonal, but oblique, at an angular separation of 55°, hence r = +.57. The oblique factors more closely approximate simple structure than the rotated orthogonal factors in Figure 3.4.

fact that fourth-order factors virtually never emerge in the mental abilities domain.) It is important to note that the extraction of higher-order factors from the oblique first-order factors does not affect the proportion of the total test variance accounted for by all of the factors or each test's communality, 12 which are identical for both the rotated and the unrotated factors, whether they are orthogonal or oblique, hierarchical or nonhierarchical.


NOTES
1.
Published as "Intelligence and its measurement: A symposium." Journal of Educational Psychology, 1921, 12, 123-147, 195-216, 271-275.
2.
Sternberg & Detterman, 1986.
3.
I have written more extensively elsewhere on the intractable problem of the definition of "intelligence" and the abandonment of this term is scientific discourse ( Jensen, 1987b; 1993a; 1994c).
4.
Because the size of the phi coefficient (ϕ) as a measure of correlation between two items is affected by the item variances when they are unequal for the two items, a correction (known as ϕ/ϕmax) for unequal variances is often applied to obtain the expected correlation if both items had equal variances. [Note: The item variance (σi2) is directly related to the proportion (p) of persons passing the item: σi2 = p(1 - p).] A tetrachoric correlation (rt) is also used for item intercorrelations, particularly if the sample size is very large and the correlations are to be factor analyzed, in which case the rt has important technical advantages over the phi coefficient. These points are fully explicated in many statistical and psychometric textbooks.
5.
The covariance between two items, a and b, is Covab = ϕabσaσb. (In the contin

-68-

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The G Factor: The Science of Mental Ability
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Chapter 2 - The Discovery of G 18
  • Notes 39
  • Chapter 3 - The Trouble with "Intelligence" 45
  • Notes 68
  • Chapter 4 - Models and Characteristics of G 95
  • Chapter 5 - Challenges to G 105
  • Notes 133
  • Chapter 6 - Biological Correlates of G 137
  • Notes 165
  • Chapter 7 - The Heritability of G 169
  • Notes 197
  • Chapter 8 - Information Processing and G 203
  • Notes 261
  • Chapter 9 - The Practical Validity of G 270
  • Notes 301
  • Chapter 10 - Construct, Vehicles, and Measurements 306
  • Notes 344
  • Chapter 11 - Population Differences in G 350
  • Notes 402
  • Chapter 12 - Population Differences in G: Causal Hypotheses 418
  • Notes 516
  • Chapter 13 - Sex Differences in G 531
  • Notes 542
  • Chapter 14 - The G Nexus 544
  • Notes 579
  • Appendix A - Spearman's "Law of Diminishing Returns" 585
  • Appendix B - Method of Correlated Vectors 589
  • Appendix C - Multivariate Analyses of a Nexus 593
  • References 597
  • Name Index 635
  • Subject Index 643
  • About the Author 649
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