The G Factor: The Science of Mental Ability

By Arthur R. Jensen | Go to book overview

albeit oversimplified, but to say more would go beyond the scope and purpose of this chapter. 37

Sternberg's aim to make ability theory more comprehensive is represented in his triarchic theory, which embraces the componential theory but also includes "social intelligence" and "tacit knowledge" (i.e., practical knowledge about the particular context of one's coping activity that is not acquired through formal instruction). These are really achievement variables that reflect how different individuals invest g in activities as affected by their particular opportunities, interests, personality traits, and motivation (see Chapter 14, pp. 575-578). Beyond this, it would be an injustice to try to describe the triarchic theory in less than a full chapter. 38 What is important to note here is that it is not antithetical to g theory.


NOTES
1.
Jensen, 1984a.
2.
The most serious and detailed attempt at a theoretical formulation of "intelligence" in terms of "social learning theory" is expounded by Staats and Burns ( 1981). They call it a "social behaviorism theory" of intelligence. In their words, "The theory states, in summary, that intelligence consists of specific repertoires--systems and skills- learned according to specified learning principles" (p. 241). A classic interpretation of mental abilities in terms of transfer of learning is the presidential address to the Canadian Psychological Association by G. A. Ferguson ( 1956).
3.
Ericsson, 1988.
4.
Fleishman & Hempel, 1955.
5.
"Army Basic-Skills Program Said Failing," Education Week, July 27, 1983.
6.
"IQ Tests for Reactor Operators," Science, June 22, 1979, Vol. 204, p. 1285.
7.
Derr ( 1989) has written an entertaining article on the meaning of "intelligence" that is implicit in the common use of language. An excellent survey of laypersons' and experts' conceptions of "intelligence" has been presented by Sternberg, Conway, Ketron, & Bernstein ( 1981).
8.
Davis, 1947. Also see the book by Clarke & Clarke, 1976.
9.
A number of authors' views of contextualism can be found in the anthology edited by Fry ( 1984). Sternberg's ( 1984a, also included in Fry's anthology) generously tolerant review of contextualist thought is the most comprehensive and comprehensible I have come across in this literature. His view of contextualism from the standpoint of a sympathetic outsider makes it seem more sensible and perhaps less substantively vacuous than the impression one gets from some of the writings by dyed-in-the-wool contextualists.
10.
Guilford has written extensively about the SOI model. The most comprehensive accounts, with extensive references that will lead readers to virtually the entire literature on SOI, are Guilford, 1967, 1985.
11.
Carroll, 1993a, p. 60. Pp. 57-60 of Carroll's book provide a fairly thorough yet succinct critique of the SOI model.
12.
Jensen, 1971a.
13.
I spoke to Guilford personally about this several years before he died, mentioning that I had found large correlations between tests that differ on all three facets of the SOI.

-133-

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The G Factor: The Science of Mental Ability
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Chapter 2 - The Discovery of G 18
  • Notes 39
  • Chapter 3 - The Trouble with "Intelligence" 45
  • Notes 68
  • Chapter 4 - Models and Characteristics of G 95
  • Chapter 5 - Challenges to G 105
  • Notes 133
  • Chapter 6 - Biological Correlates of G 137
  • Notes 165
  • Chapter 7 - The Heritability of G 169
  • Notes 197
  • Chapter 8 - Information Processing and G 203
  • Notes 261
  • Chapter 9 - The Practical Validity of G 270
  • Notes 301
  • Chapter 10 - Construct, Vehicles, and Measurements 306
  • Notes 344
  • Chapter 11 - Population Differences in G 350
  • Notes 402
  • Chapter 12 - Population Differences in G: Causal Hypotheses 418
  • Notes 516
  • Chapter 13 - Sex Differences in G 531
  • Notes 542
  • Chapter 14 - The G Nexus 544
  • Notes 579
  • Appendix A - Spearman's "Law of Diminishing Returns" 585
  • Appendix B - Method of Correlated Vectors 589
  • Appendix C - Multivariate Analyses of a Nexus 593
  • References 597
  • Name Index 635
  • Subject Index 643
  • About the Author 649
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